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Volume 83, 2020, Issue 1

Volume 83, 2020, Issue 1

Editor-in-Chief: Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2020 © 2020 Polish Anthropological Society


Age and sex specific variations in body composition in Indian urban Bengali Hindu children, adolescents and young adults aged 7–21 years
Saijuddin Shaikh, Rituparna Das, Rana Saha, Sukanta Das, Parasmani Dasgupta

Childhood and adolescent obesity is a public health concern worldwide. However, little attention
has been paid on status of overweight and body composition of Indian Bengali urban middle and high SES
population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of overweight and body composition status by
age and sex in children, adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study was carried out among
4194 unmarried school and college students (1999 males and 2195 females) aged 7–21 years belonging to
the Bengali Hindu Population in Kolkata, India. The survey period was from 1999 to 2011. Anthropometry
of participants were measured. Age and sex specific ≥85 percentile of body mass index (BMI) for children
(<18 years of age) and BMI ≥23 kg/m2 (≥18 years of age) for adults were used to define overweight. Fat
percent, upper arm fat area (UAFA) and upper arm muscle area (UAMA) were estimated. Simple linear
regression was performed to check trend of changes with age. The overall prevalence of overweight was
14.8% in both sexes. Mean fat percent was higher in females than males (23.5% vs 13.5% respectively;
p<0.001) and it increased by 0.18% (0.02) in males and 0.56% (0.02) in females per year (both p<0.001).
UAMA gradually increased with age in both sexes and increasing rate per year was by 2.07 (0.04) cm2
in males and 1.19 (0.04) cm2 in females (both p<0.001). However, UAFA increased by 0.41 (0.03) cm2
and 0.90 (0.03) cm2 every year in males and females respectively (both p<0.001). Sum of biceps, triceps,
subscapular and suprailliac skinfolds increased by 1.66 (0.06) mm and 0.5 (0.07) mm per year in females
and males respectively (both p<0.001). Overall prevalence of overweight was the same in both sexes but
adipose tissue was higher and muscularly was lower in females than males.
Key words: overweight, fat percent, upper arm muscle area, upper arm fat area, West Bengal

In utero undernourishment during WWII: Effects on height and weight of young adult women
Zbigniew Czapla, Grażyna Liczbińska, Janusz Piontek, Robert M. Malina

Under marginal nutritional conditions, growth in utero is related to subsequent growth and adult
height. The aim of this research is to compare the young adult body size of women grouped by estimated
duration of pregnancy relative to World War II. Subjects were 620 university students 18-25 years, for
whom archival data for date of birth, age, height and weight were available; the BMI was calculated. Based
on estimated time of pregnancy and birth relative to WWII, the women were grouped as follows: (1) pregnancy
and birth before the war (n=203); (2) pregnancy before the war, birth during the war (n=54); (3)
pregnancy and birth during the war (n=173); (4) pregnancy during the war, birth after the war (n=16); and
(5) pregnancy and birth after the war (n=174). Heights of women born before and after WWII were significantly
taller than heights of women born during the war. Though not significant, the height of women who
were conceived before but born during the war was intermediate between those of women born before and
during the war. The height of women conceived during the war but born after the war was similar to that
of women conceived and born during the war. In contrast, BMIs and the distributions of women by weight
status did not differ among the five pregnancy groups. The results suggested that heights of young adult
women exposed in utero to the conditions of WWII (marginal nutritional status, maternal stress, among
other factors) were shorter than women who were not exposed in utero to wartime conditions.
Key words: prenatal stress, maternal nutritional status, foetal malnutrition, growth restriction, body size

Paternal age and the risk of cerebral palsy
Marta Sternal, Barbara Kwiatkowska, Krzysztof Borysławski, Agnieszka Tomaszewska

In the literature there are no unequivocal assessments of the effect of paternal age on the risk of
cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of the studies was the analysis of the influence of paternal age on this
risk, considering all the important risk factors and division into singleton and twin, as well as term- and
preterm-born infants. The inquiry included a group of 278 children with cerebral palsy from selected education-
therapeutic institutions in Poland. The control group consisted of the data from medical records of
435 neonates born in God’s Mercy Hospital in Limanowa, Poland. The data were based on a questionnaire
designed to obtain information which would make it possible to ascertain the probable etiological factors.
Constructed models of logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. The results were presented as
the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Though the estimation with a complex model of
logistic regression showed no significant effect of paternal age on the occurrence of cerebral palsy, it confirmed
it as a stronger predictor compared to maternal age. Disregarding paternal of age while considering
maternal age and other risk factors may lead to a bias in the estimations of the risk cerebral palsy.
Key words: cerebral palsy, singleton, twin, term- preterm-born infants, paternal age, maternal age

A need for an update of Polish birth weight reference norms
Tomasz Hadada, Magdalena Kosińska

The indicators of perinatal outcome are birth weight and gestational age. The standard method
of assessing the outcome is comparing the newborn’s birth weight with the reference system, presented
in the form of percentile charts. Acceleration or delay in prenatal development, which are associated with
environmental changes, stress the need to validate the developmental norms. The goal of this study is to
evaluate the need to construct new and accurate reference standards. The study includes data of newborns
from singleton pregnancies: 4919 born in 2000 and 3683 born in 2015. Study variables included gestational
age, sex, and birth weight. Percentile values estimated for two groups of infants born in years separated by
a 15-year period, born in 2000 and in 2015, were compared. Birth weight percentiles, from the 28th to the
42nd week of gestation, were calculated using the Lambda Mu Sigma method. Estimated values revealed
the birth weight standards in different weeks of gestational age for both years: 2000 and 2015. Comparison
among medians estimated for infants born in these years showed the existence of significant differences
among boys in the 28th, 36th, and 39th weeks and among girls in the 34th and 41st weeks of gestational
age. As the period between the two measurements involves several years, environmental changes during
this time period might have significantly affected the course of pregnancy and thus the birth weight. Hence,
there is a need to validate the developmental norms. The reference standards should be renewed, and must
be done on a periodical basis.
Key words: developmental norms, percentile charts, gestational age, birth weight

Cigarette smoking as an oral health risk behavior in adolescents: a cross-sectional study among Polish youths
Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk, Jacek Tomczyk, Dariusz Gozdowski, Urszula Kaczmarek

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoking and the condition
of the teeth and periodontium and the oral health behavior of 18-year-olds. Cross-sectional studies
on 1,611 18-year-olds from Poland were conducted in 2017. The questionnaire provided socio-economic
data, information about health-related behavior (cigarette smoking and oral health behavior), and absence
from school due to oral pain. The dentition status (DMFT and DMFS), periodontal status (gingival
bleeding, depth of periodontal pockets, loss of attachment), and need for endodontic treatment or tooth
extraction were clinically assessed. Cigarette smoking was reported by 25% of participants (15% reported
every day smoking). Adolescents who smoked cigarettes regularly had a higher mean number of decayed
teeth (2.40±3.21 vs. 1.95±2.66) and similar periodontal status. Cigarette smoking increased the risk of
oral hygiene neglect (63% vs. 69%), dietary mistakes (25% vs. 13%), failure to make dental appointments
(32% vs. 43%), occurrence of oral pain (28% vs. 27%), absence from school due to pain (13% vs. 6%),
and the need for endodontic treatment or tooth extraction (11% vs. 5%). The socio-economic factors and
sex of the subjects decreased the influence of smoking only on oral hygiene neglect. Cigarette smoking by
adolescents seems to be an independent risk factor for serious dietary mistakes, failure to benefit from
oral healthcare, and more dynamic damage of teeth, which lead to pain and even tooth loss. Therefore,
these aspects should be included in the risk assessment of oral disease and incorporated into educational
programs promoting a healthy lifestyle.
Key words: cigarette smoking, dietary habits, dental caries, adolescents

Association of kidney stone disease with dietary factors: a review
Henry Konjengbam, Sanjenbam Yaiphaba Meitei

Kidney stone disease is one of the most common urologic disorders worldwide. The incidence of
kidney stones disease is increasing all over the world. It is a multifactorial disease accompanied by various
factors. The dietary factor is one of the most important risk factors for the formation and recurrence of
kidney stone disease. Formation and recurrence of kidney stone disease can be prevented by modifying our
day to day dietary habits. Fewer intakes of animal protein, higher intake of fluid, higher intake of fruits, and
higher intake of green leafy vegetables, which contain a low amount of oxalate, can prevent the formation
of kidney stones and recurrence of kidney stones. From this review, it may be presumed that the higher
prevalence rate of kidney stone disease in northeast India may be the dietary factors accompanied by environmental
and climatic conditions of the region.
Key words: kidney, urologic, animal protein, water, fruits, vegetables, oxalate, dietary, multifactorial, recurrence.

The dynamic nature of ageing: novel findings, therapeutic avenues and medical interventions
Piotr Paweł Chmielewski

Ageing is one of the most complex and difficult problems for humans to face and for science
to solve. Although human senescence was viewed as a passive and uncontrollable process of deterioration
over time with little or no genetic regulation, the concept that ageing is caused by both genetic and
environmental factors is now generally accepted, even though it remains difficult to distinguish between
ageing sensu stricto and the effects of age-related diseases. Empirical data show that mechanisms of ageing
are highly conserved during evolution. Moreover, it has been established that there are specific molecular
‘instructions’ for ageing, which suggests that a better understanding of the molecular biology of ageing will
open new possibilities regarding future interventions. The complexity of ageing diminishes the possibility
that any general theory will completely explain this metaphenomenon. Likewise, it is highly unlikely that
any medication can stop or reverse human senescence. Nevertheless, ageing as a dynamic and malleable
metaphenomenon can be modulated by a variety of influences. The concept of the shrinkage of the homeodynamic
space with age, i.e. homeostenosis, is especially interesting and intriguing as it shows that novel
therapeutic approaches and rational strategies can help delay the onset of the ageing-associated pathologies
by enhancing the homeodynamic capabilities of the body. The aim of this article is to present current data
from evolutionary and molecular gerontology and discuss them within the ambit of this review which is
devoted to the dynamic, emergent and plastic nature of human ageing and implications for future interventions.
Key words: ageing, epigenetic clocks, epigenetic mechanisms, homeodynamics, human longevity, hyperfunction,

What have the revelations about Neanderthal DNA revealed about Homo sapiens?
Santiago Wolnei Ferreira Guimarães, Hilton P. Silva

Genetic studies have presented increasing indications about the complexity of the interactions
between Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans, during Pleistocene. The results indicate potential
replacement or admixture of the groups of hominins that lived in the same region at different times. Recently,
the time of separation among these hominins in relation to the Last Common Ancestor – LCA has
been reasonably well established. Events of mixing with emphasis on the Neanderthal gene flow into H.
sapiens outside Africa, Denisovans into H. sapiens ancestors in Oceania and continental Asia, Neanderthals
into Denisovans, as well as the origin of some phenotypic features in specific populations such as the color
of the skin, eyes, hair and predisposition to develop certain kinds of diseases have also been found. The
current information supports the existence of both replacement and interbreeding events, and indicates
the need to revise the two main explanatory models, the Multiregional and the Out-of-Africa hypotheses,
about the origin and evolution of H. sapiens and its co-relatives. There is definitely no longer the possibility
of justifying only one model over the other. This paper aims to provide a brief review and update on the
debate around this issue, considering the advances brought about by the recent genetic as well as morphological
traits analyses.
Key words: Human evolution, admixture, genetics, morphology, Homo sapiens

Volume 82, 2019, Issue 4

Volume 82, 2019, Issue 4

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2019 © 2019 Polish Anthropological Society


Socioeconomic factors and lifestyle affecting the variability of menstrual cycle characteristics in women from Central Poland
Joanna Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Beata Borowska, Agata Janiszewska, Sławomir Kozieł

Abstract: Regularity, length of the cycle and duration of menstrual flow are a reflection of women health.
The purpose of the research was to assess the relationships between socioeconomic status, cycle length,
duration of menses, regularity and dysmenorrhea. A survey was conducted among 896 healthy women
from Łódź and Warsaw (Poland), aged 15.71–26.98. Women who were menarche at least 3 years ago
were asked to complete the survey. Women were asked about cycle length (number of days), duration of
menstrual flow, regularity of the cycle, dysmenorrhea, birth place, parental education level, attendance at
physical education classes, participation in additional sports activities, self-assessment of stress levels at
home and at school/university, and smoking. For data analysis, t-test, analysis of variance, and chi-square
were used, and p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. There were no significant relationships
between the mean cycle length, regularity and the environmental factors, except for differences in the average
length of the menstrual cycle in women from Łódź who attend additional sports activities. Women
who are more physically active are characterized by a shorter menstrual cycle. In terms of the length of
the menstrual flow, daughters of better educated fathers were characterized by longer menses. In contrast,
dysmenorrhea was associated with longer menstrual periods and longer menstrual bleeding, as well as with
higher levels of stress, both at home and at school. Environmental factors affected the features of menstruation
cycles in women from Central Poland.
Key words: menses, regularity, bleeding, SES

Dietary habits in the context of body composition of young adult females
Tereza Sofková, Michaela Hřivnová, Marie Chrásková

Abstract: Appropriate dietary habits and healthy nutrition play a part in weight control. Set positive principles
make precondition for satisfactory state of the body and its composition. Body mass index (BMI) is
most commonly used to assess optimal body mass in relation to health risks. However, BMI does not enable
the representation of individual body components and may lead to misdiagnosis in one person. The aim of
our study was to evaluate dietary habits and selected body composition parameters based on BMI. Moreover,
we evaluated these parameters in relation to the daily frequency of meals. The research group consisted
of 318 female students of pedagogical disciplines of Palacký University in Olomouc, aged between 18
and 30 years. (22.3±2.5 years). The survey was conducted in March 2018 and 2019. Data on dietary habits
were acquired through a questionnaire survey that focused on the daily frequency of meals. Multi-frequency
bioimpedance analysis using InBody 720 analyser was used to determine body composition parameters.
In the normal weight BMI (BMI_N) category, the selected parameters (BFP: body fat percentage, VFA:
visceral fat, FFM: fat-free mass) based on general recommendations for body composition are met. In the
overweight and obesity (BMI_O) category, the mean BFP values fall, as expected, into the obesity category
(≥ 35%). We may conclude that statistically significantly lower relative risk of damage to health assessed by
the body fat and visceral fat (BFM, BFP, VFA, BFMI) was found to be significantly lower in women who consume
5 meals per day compared to women who consume 4 or less daily portions of food. The differences
between the BMI categories for individual meals during the day were statistically insignificant for the group
we investigated. We evaluate the dietary habits positively based on the low frequency of skipping meals.
Key words: young adulthood, frequency of meals, body mass index, somatic investigation

ACE Insertion/Deletion polymorphism (rs4646994) affects body composition in middleaged premenopausal women with essential hypertension
Darina Falbová, Lenka Vorobeľová, Veronika Candráková Čerňanová, Radoslav Beňuš, Daniela Siváková

Abstract: This study assesses the association between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) I/D
(rs4646994) polymorphism and body composition parameters in essential hypertension (HT) and menopausal
status in Slovak women. The entire study sample comprised 575 women in two groups: 255 with HT
and 320 without. Body composition parameters were measured by bioelectric impedance analyzer and ACE
I/D polymorphism genotypes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Premenopausal HT women with
ACE II genotype had significantly lower body cell mass (p=0.004), extra- and intracellular water (p=0.027;
p=0.004), fat free mass and muscle mass (p=0.006; P = 0.003), fat free mass index (p=0.006) and body
cell mass index (p=0.003) than their ID/DD counterparts. These associations were not determined in normotensive
and/or postmenopausal women. This study confirmed that ACE I/D gene polymorphism affects
body composition in HT premenopausal women.
Key words: hypertension, ACE, body composition, SNP

Father’s social and economic position has strongest impact on age at menarche in girls from Central India
Magdalena Kosińska, Grażyna Liczbińska, Rajesh K. Gautam, Pragya Dubey, Ajay Kumar Ahirwar, Anurag Chaurasia

Abstract: We assessed the impact of socio-economic factors on age at menarche among the adolescent
female population from the state of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Records such as date of birth, chronological
age, caste affiliation, size of place of residence, parents’ level of education and occupation, number
of siblings, body height and weight, and age at menarche were collected for 330 students of A Central
University, Sagar. The impact of socio-economic factors on age at menarche was analysed using analysis
of variance. To establish the probability of menarche occurrence at a given age, time-to-event analysis was
carried out using Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test for curve comparison. The association between
probability of attaining menarche and the independent variables was investigated using Cox proportional-
hazard model. ANOVA and the Kaplan-Meier curves showed statistically significant differences in age
at menarche according to size of the place of residence, number of siblings, parental level of education,
father’s occupation and females’ BMI. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that father’s occupation
was the strongest factor affecting age at menarche among all SES characteristics under study. Irrespective
of rapid economic progress over the past few decades, Indian society is still patriarchal with societal male
dominance. This translates into participation of fewer women in the paid workforce and labour market,
their lower wage rates and smaller contribution to the household budget compared to their male counterparts.
Key words: nutrition, BMI, caste system, economy, social status, Indian society

Factors related to adverse mental health condition of demented family caregivers: A study in West Bengal, India
Ipsita Basu, Susmita Mukhopadhyay

Abstract: Dementia caregiving is a unique and the caregivers faces extreme challenges which affect caregiver’s
mental health adversely. Family caregiving towards elderly individuals with dementia is becoming
widespread. The study aims to evaluate the mental health status of dementia family caregivers and some
related factors that affect their mental health condition.
Present cross sectional study includes a total of 134 family caregivers. Socio-demographic and caregiving
related data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Standardized questionnaires were used to
collect data on caregivers’ mental health traits (measured in terms of level of stress and anxiety), level of
psychosocial distress, support they provided and the care recipient’s behavioural symptoms associated with
dementia. Mean age of the caregivers was 61.64 years (SD 13.89) while the care recipients were above 70
years of age. Mean age of care recipients was 75.46±7.26 years. Alzheimer’s type of dementia was the most
common type found among them. Higher level of stress and anxiety was prevalent among the caregivers.
Level of education, being a spouse, psychological distress has strong relationship with caregivers’ mental
health condition. Behavioural abnormalities of care recipients were also responsible for poor mental health
conditions of caregivers. Family caregiving is becoming the most suitable option nowadays and it associated
with caregivers’ psychological distress and other health issues. Present study also revealed distressed
mental health conditions of caregivers. Since care recipients remain dependent mostly on their family caregivers,
it is necessary that caregivers should be fit mentally as well as physically. Therefore, proper support
and management is needed for caregivers in near future.
Key words: dementia caregivers, mental health, stress, anxiety, socio-demographic factors

Functional morphometry of the pterygoid hamulus. A comparative study of modern and medieval populations
Iulian Komarnitki, Hanna Mankowska-Pliszka, Ewa Ungier, Dawid Dziedzic, Michal Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka Tomczyk, Bogdan Ciszek

Abstract: The pterygoid hamulus (PH) is located in the infratemporal fossa and is part of the pterygoid
process of the sphenoid bone. Its location on the cranial base and the multitude of anatomical structures
whose attachments lie on the surface of the pterygoid hamulus make it of high functional and topographic
significance. Due to insufficient literature on the PH morphometry, we decided to study this issue using
modern and archaeological material. In total, 99 observations were subjected to quantitative and qualitative
analysis (50 - from modern times and 49 - from medieval times). On the basis of the statistical
analysis, statistically significant differences in the length of PH were found with respect to age and sex.
Statistically significant differences in the PH width were also noticed with respect to sex and the period
of origin. The results obtained may help better understand the development mechanism of the pterygoid
hamulus bursitis.
Key words: pterygoid hamulus, cone-beam computer tomography, archeological material

Testing the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis on Polish kings and dukes
Piotr Sorokowski, Marta Kowal, Piotr Badyna, Agnieszka Niemczyk, Maciej Karwowski, Sławomir Kozieł

Abstract: The Trivers-Willard Hypothesis (TWH), frequently investigated by evolutionary psychologists,
states that human beings may have evolved to produce a greater number of sons when having a high status,
and a greater number of daughters when having a low status. To test this hypothesis, we examined the sex
of children of Polish high status: kings, dukes, magnates families; and of low status: peasants, burghers and
gentry. Our findings do not provide evidence for the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis (TWH), as there were no
differences between offspring’s sex ratio among any of the investigated social classes (with the exception
of magnates families). We draw our conclusions with caution, as historical data carry many limitations.
Key words: Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH), evolutionary psychology, social status, children, sex ratio

Variation in lip print pattern between two ethnic groups, Oraon tribals and Bengalee Hindus, residing in West Bengal, India
Archita Dey, Mahua Chanak, Kaustav Das, Koel Mukherjee, Kaushik Bose

Abstract: Lip print pattern (LPP) is unique to each individual. For decades, forensic experts have used LPP
for personal identification to solve criminal cases. However, studies investigating ethnic variation in LPP
are scanty. Our study wanted to investigate variation in LPP between two ethnic groups, Oraon tribals and
Bengalee Hindus, residing in West Bengal, India. A total of 280 participants included 112 Oraons and168
Bengalee Hindus of both. Prints were taken using dark shaded lipstick and transparent cellophane tape and
recorded into white A4 sheet. Prints were divided into four quadrants and examined by magnifying glass.
For analysis of results, classification of Suzuki and Tsuchihashi was followed. A p value of 0.05 was considered
to be statistically significant. It was observed that Type II pattern was dominant in first and second
quadrants in both ethnic groups, irrespective of sex. Combination of Type II+III was found to be the most
common pattern in males among both Oraons (16.2%) and Bengalee Hindus (12.2%) whereas in females
Type II pattern (25.0%) among Oraons and Type III pattern among Bengalee Hindus (11.4%) was the most
common. Chi square test showed statistically significant difference among females (p<0.05) and in third
and fourth quadrants among males (p<0.01) of both ethnic groups. Our investigation clearly demonstrated
sex and ethnic variations in LPP. Further studies are required to investigate ethnic variation in LPP among
the various populations groups, both tribal as well as non-tribal, from different regions of India.
Key words: cheiloscopy, Oraon, Bengalee Hindu

Human ageing, longevity and evolution: can ageing be programmed?
Piotr Paweł Chmielewski

Abstract: Understanding the proximate and ultimate causes of ageing is one of the key challenges in
current biology and medicine. These problems are so important that they are sometimes referred to as
the Holy Grail of biology and the Great Conundrum in biogerontology. From an evolutionary perspective,
ageing is due to a failure of selection that is caused either by declining strength of selection after the onset
of sexual reproduction (Medawar’s theory and Charlesworth’s model) or pleiotropic constraints (Williams’
theory). According to the disposable soma theory, which was proposed by Kirkwood and Holliday, ageing
is driven by the accumulation of damage during life and failures of defensive and repair mechanisms as the
more an animal expends on sexual reproduction, the less it can expend on bodily maintenance, and vice
versa. Although these standard models rule out the possibility that ageing is programmed, there is no consensus
about the nature of ageing within the life history in current biogerontology. Interestingly, empirical
studies show that there are molecular instructions for ageing and evolutionarily conserved mechanisms
for ageing, which seems inconsistent with the idea that ageing is a matter of neglect or a consequence of
a failure of selection due to pleiotropic constraints. Here, selected arguments for programmed (i.e. either
determined and adaptive or prearranged but non-adaptive) and non-programmed ageing are discussed.
Recent advances in biogerontology that cast new light on these problems are outlined here in the context of
the idea that the pace of ageing can act as an adaptation in nature, even though ageing is non-programmed
and non-adaptive.
Key words: ageing, evolution, longevity, senescence, theories of ageing

Volume 82, 2019, Issue 3

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society


Analysis of the mitochondrial CYTB gene sequence in human populations of northeastern Bosnia
Adisa Ahmic, Irma Mujkic, Anel Ismailovic, Emir Halilovic, Lejla Lasic, Belma Kalamujic, Naris Pojskic

This study offers the first report on variation sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (MTCYTB) gene in populations from Bosnia (northeastern Bosnia). This study was designed on the analysis of the genetic diversity of two populations of different cultural-anthropological and genetic origin, Roma population and native/non-Roma population. The main aim of our study was to estimate the usefulness of the CYTB sequence in the analysis of genetic categorization of different populations and intergroup diversity, as well as to provide some additional information on haplogroup-associated polymorphisms within the CYTB region in defining haplogroup status. Estimation of the genetic diversity was done using intra and intergroup genetic indices. The population-specific polymorphisms have been found in both categories of the populations. The results of the analysis of genetic differentiation show significant pairwise Fst differences between the Romani and native populations. Also, registered significant genetic differentiation is illustrated on the level of genetic variation between subpopulations of the Roma and non-Roma origin. The important result in our study is the confirmation of the significance of the triad of polymorphisms T14783C-G15043A-G15301A, indicating the influence of Asian component of the maternal gene pool on the genetic structure of the studied population of the Roma. Our data show that the haplogroup polymorphisms exist in the CYTB region and can provide useful information on the haplogroups that were defined only by the control region of the mtDNA. The results of this study indicate the region of CYTB gene can be a benefit in providing some additional information in the analysis of genetic structure of human populations and can be additionally applied in population studies.
Key words: CYTB polymorphisms, genetic differentiation, haplogroups

Central obesity and hypertension among rural adults of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India
Mahua Chanak, Kaushik Bose

Obesity is generally classified into generalized obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and abdominal or central obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men and WC ≥80 cm for women) based on World Health Organization recommendation for Asians. Hypertension is one of the most common obesity-related complications, and about 30% of hypertensive individuals can be classified as being obese. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different age groups (years) on the anthropometric and derived variables. It determined the correlation between anthropometric and derived variables and also estimated the frequency of central obesity and hypertension. Finally, it investigated the relationship between central obesity and blood pressure among rural Bengalee adults of Dirghagram village of Ghatal Block, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among 310 rural adults (154 males; 156 females) aged over 18 years. Our study was carried out during March, 2017. Height (cm), weight (kg), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference (cm) and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) were measured using standard procedures. One way ANOVA analysis on most of the anthropometric and derived variables showed a statistically significant increase from younger to older age group in both sexes (p<0.001;p<0.01; p<0.05). In addition to that, more females had central obesity using waist circumference (55.8% vs. 19.5%), waist hip ratio (87.2% vs. 35.7%), waist height ratio (73.7% vs. 44.2%), and conicity index (87.2% vs. 57.8%) criteria, and hypertension (52.5% vs. 27.3%). The prevalence of central obesity was much higher in case of hypertensive individuals. Therefore, the present study showed a high prevalence of central obesity among the rural adults of Dirghagram village. Furthermore, central obesity contributed in increasing hypertension among the villagers.
Key words: rural adults, central obesity, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, waist height ratio, conicity index, hypertension

The incidence and extraction causes of third molars among young adults in Poland
Agnieszka Tomaszewska, Mateusz Sikora

Despite many years of observation, the issue of third molars is still open for discussion. Among human teeth, third molars vary the most in number and morphology, which results from genetic changes and environmental factors affecting the evolution of the human dentition. This research aims to study various
aspects of third molars in the population of young Poles, such as the incidence, time of eruption and causes of extraction in men and women. The analyses consider the socio-economic status of the respondents, including the frequency of visits to the dentist. Eight hundred students, aged 19–25 (14.4% of men and 85.6% of women) of the universities located in Wroclaw, Poland, took part in an online questionnaire survey. The incidence of third molars was smaller in the women (32.4–34.9%) than in men (47.8–56.5%) (p<0.001). For both sexes, the most frequent causes of extraction were abnormal tooth position (29.6–54.5%) and orthodontic treatment (15.5–27.3%). Both incidence and causes of extraction were related for all the examined pairs of teeth (upper–lower teeth and right–left teeth). The men (17.94–18.49 year) and women (18.42–18.83 year) did not differ in the mean age of their third molars’ eruption. The men visited the dentist less often than the women did (p<0.001). The study presents original research and confronts it with published results. Despite the limitations of an online survey, the results can contribute to more advanced research conducted on a larger scale. In particular, more detailed research is recommended for the Polish population, for which such studies are scarce.
Key words: third molar, tooth eruption, tooth extraction, dentition

Variation in menarcheal age of school-aged female athletes engaged in different types of sport
Józef Tatarczuk, Artur Wandycz, Andrzej Malinowski

It is widely known from the literature that the rate of physical development and sexual maturation is not only determined by genetics but is also modified by physical workload factors. Given the above, this paper aimed at comparing menarcheal age of school-aged athletes engaged in different types of sport
(and their respective workloads) after controlling for physical traits such as body height and mass and
slenderness ratio. The survey was conducted in 2017 in 6 sports schools in Poland’s Lubuskie Voivodeship. Body height and mass were measured and the slenderness index (body height divided by the cubic root of body weight) was used to establish body build. The age of menarche was self-reported by the study participants. In total, 232 girls aged 9–18 were included in the research, of whom 125 reported their age of menarche. The age-adjusted arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated for the study participants’ estimates. The raw data were then transformed into standardized z-score values. The significance of differences was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test as an alternative to the t-test when a given variable was not normally distributed. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate linear relations between the workload and age at menarche. It was found that dancers, acrobats and swimmers reported the youngest menarcheal ages. Girls practising most demanding sport disciplines (in terms of strength and endurance) reported the oldest age at menarche. Girls practising more than 3 times per week had menarche later than those practising 3 times a week or less, and the difference was statistically significant. In conclusion it might be stated that the type of sport discipline has a significant effect on age of menarche. Sport disciplines involving heavier physical exertion usually delay the onset of menstruation.
Key words: puberty, maturation, sport disciplines

Body proportions of 6–18-year-old children in Merida, Mexico
Anna Siniarska, Joanna Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Sławomir Kozieł, Napoleon Wolański

The purpose of this study was to find out the differences in body physique and its proportions between children from Creole, Maya and Mestizo ethnic groups living in Merida, Mexico. The study was conducted between 1996–1999 and comprised of 4636 children and youth aged 6–18 years from three ethnic groups: Maya, Mestizo, and Creole. There were 1362 boys and 1314 girls from Creole group and 803 boys and 857 girls from the pooled Maya/Mestizo group. Anthropometric measurements included body height, arm and leg length, shoulder and hip width. The following indexes were calculated: leg lengthto-body height, upper-to-lower limb, shoulder-to-body height, hip-to-body height, and hip-to-shoulder. Two-way analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the main effect and the interaction effects of age and ethnicity on height, leg length and body proportions, separately for boys and girls. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistica software version 13.1. All p-values lower than 0.05were considered significant. Results of this study revealed that average values of body height, leg length and upper-to-lower limb and shoulder width proportions were statistically significantly different between ethnic groups. Creole children were taller and longer-legged than their Maya/Mestizo peers, and the greatest difference was noted after puberty. Maya/Mestizo children had relatively longer arm as compared to Creoles. Results of two-way ANOVA revealed that age and ethnicity were combined (interaction effect) factors for variation in body height both in boys and girls, and upper-to-lower limb proportion in boys, shoulder-to-body height proportion in girls. Ethnicity was the main effect factor for leg length both in boys and girls, and for the body proportions: upper-to-lower limb in girls and shoulder-to-body height in boys. Age was the main effect factor for upper-to-lower limb proportion in girls, shoulder-to-body height in boys, hip-to-body height in boys and girls, and hip-to-shoulder, both in boys and girls. In conclusion it may be stated that variation in body physique and body proportions during the postnatal growth in different ethnic groups is under the influence of complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors to which the individual is exposed.
Key words: body physique, ethnicity, age changes

The adaptation process and preliminary psychometric evaluation of the Polish version of Kiddo-KINDL questionnaire
Tomasz Hanć, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer

The assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly important in fields of public health, medicine, sociology and psychology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of generic Kiddo-KINDL questionnaire for adolescents. The psychometric evaluation was performed using 96 questionnaires fulfilled by adolescents aged 12–16 years. Cronbach’s α coefficient for internal consistency and split-half reliability was estimated as well as ceiling, floor effect and correlations among the subscales and total score. The mean reliability for subscales was 0.65 and the Cronbach’s α coefficient for the total score was 0.85. The lowest α coefficient was for the School dimension (0.44) and the highest was achieved for the Self-esteem (0.80). The correlation between two parts of the questionnaire and split-half reliability was 0.66 and 0.80 respectively. The first psychometric evaluation of the Polish Kiddo-KINDL showed promising basic measurement properties, but it needs farther assessment, including convergent, construct and discriminant validity estimation.
Key words: health-related quality of life, KINDL questionnaire, psychometric evaluation, Polish cultural
adaptation, adolescents

Why are individuals with autism spectrum disorder at risk group for unhealthy weight?
Sylwia Trambacz-Oleszak

Several studies have indicated that the prevalence of unhealthy body weight in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high. It is unclear whether factors related to the weight status of children and adolescents with ASD are the same or different from factors associated with the weight status of typically developing children (TDC). The objective of this review was to identify key factors associated with the higher rates of unhealthy weight observed in individuals with ASD and create a structural model, which could be used for future autism intervention research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the genetic basis of obesity in ASD, special treatment (behavioral and medical, including diet and psychotropic medications), psychological (depression and anxiety) as well as somatic comorbid disorders such as feeding problems, sensory processing disorders, gastrointestinal problems and sleep disorders, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, loneliness and social isolation, and family functioning (maternal depression and stress).
Key words: autism spectrum disorder, underweight, overweight, obesity, risk factors

Nutritional assessment of Oraons of West Bengal: a comparison between biochemical and anthropometric methods
Ankita Bhattacharya, Shankarashis Mukherjee, Subrata Kumar Roy

Comprehensive nutritional assessment is the basis of nutritional diagnosis and necessary to identify the individual or the population at a risk of dietary deficiencies. However, there is no specific and confirmatory method to measure nutritional status. Present study tried to find out the efficacy of two nutritional assessment method (1) biochemical test like Total serum protein (TSP) and (2) anthropological measurements like body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC). Later, three methods were tested and compared for the strength of assessing the nutritional status. Study was conducted among 198 adult Oraon, 84 male, 114 female individuals of Madarihat and Falakata police station area, Alipurduar district, West Bengal. Selected blood parameters such as total serum protein (TSP), serum albumin and haemoglobin and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, calf circumference, biceps skinfold, triceps skinfold, and calf skinfold) were obtained following standard instruments and protocols. Nutritional status of all individuals was assessed by TSP, BMI and MUAC classification methods. Comparison between/among three classification methods (TSP, BMI and MUAC) was done and discriminant function analysis was adopted to find out the percentage of correct classification by each methods. It was found that prevalence of undernutrition using TSP classification was 38.1% male and 43.0% female; using BMI was 34.5% male and 53.5% female; using MUAC was 45.2% male and 64.9% female. Discriminant function analysis showed that BMI (97.0%) had the highest capability of correct classification followed by MUAC (84.80%) and TSP (63.60%). Results indicate that however, TSP is an objective way of nutritional assessment, but BMI had the highest capability of correct classification of nutritional status. It may be pointed out that the evaluation with TSP was expensive and invasive whereas BMI is non-expensive and completely a non-invasive way of evaluation. Therefore, BMI may widely be used for nutritional assessment.
Key words: undernutrition, total serum protein, body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, discriminant function analysis

Volume 82, 2019, Issue 2

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society


Menstrual characteristics and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status: a study among the urban slum adolescent girls of West Bengal, India
Aditi Samanta, Joyeeta Thakur, Monali Goswami

Menstrual health is one of the major areas of concern in reproductive health, and affects a large number of women throughout their reproductive life from adolescence. Menstruation is a biological phenomenon imbued with social-cultural, nutritional and personal significance. The present study aims to focus on the menstrual characteristics and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among the urban slum adolescent girls of North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal. This community-based study was conducted among a group of 90 Bengali speaking Hindu adolescent girls aged between 16 to 18 years. A pre-tested structured schedule was used to collect detailed information about the socio-economic conditions and menstrual characteristics. All anthropometric measurements were taken using the standard procedures. Results of the study revealed that underweight girls attained menarche comparatively in later age (12.67±1.23) than that of healthy and overweight girls. Mean length of the menstrual cycle, mean duration of menstrual bleeding and mean number of days of peak discharge were maximum among the girls whose BMI was below 5th percentile, i.e. underweight. Majority of the underweight (75%) and healthy (50%) girls experienced heavy discharge during their menstrual days. Disorders like premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (78.8%) and dysmenorrhea (85.5%) were the major prevalent menstrual problems among these girls and occurrence of the symptoms of these disorders significantly varied based on their BMI. A highly significant difference (p<0.01) was found among underweight, healthy and overweight girls in terms of duration of menstrual bleeding, mean number of days of peak discharge and occurrences of PMS. Result of linear regression and step wise logistic regression (backward elimination) shows that various socio-economic and anthropometric variables are the influential predictors of menstrual
characteristics like duration of menstrual discharge, cycle length, days of peak discharge as well as menstrual problems like cycle irregularity and heavy flow (p<0.05). Therefore, the present study unwraps a podium to focus on the menstrual health issues of the adolescent girls and enforce health education as well as instigates nutritional intervention programme to fortify the existing menstrual health status.

Does extreme maternal age still act as a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome? Evidence from Poland 20 years after the social and economic transformation
Magdalena Kosińska, Tomasz Hadada, Grażyna Liczbińska

It was examined whether positive changes in maternal SES and medical facilities in Poland 20 years after social and economic transformation weakened the role of maternal age in shaping perinatal outcome. Data comprised of 2,979 children born in 2000 and 2,992 – born in 2015. To test the differences between the frequency of indicators of adverse perinatal outcome the chi-square test was applied. The influence of maternal age on the perinatal outcome was estimated using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), with binomial error distribution and the logit link function. The infants survival was examined using survival analysis. Gestational age and birth weight were influenced by mother’s age and the year of survey. Infants of adolescent and older mothers represented the groups with a risk of adverse perinatal outcome: an increase of preterm births and higher risk of having children with LBW in the group of adolescent mothers than in mothers aged >35, infants born SGA and LGA found in both adolescent and adult mothers. GLMs confirmed the impact of maternal age and the year of survey on perinatal outcome. The Cox proportional hazard models showed that the year of survey was the only factor affecting the risk of infants’ death. The impact of maternal age on adverse perinatal outcome can be counterbalanced by positive changes in social and economic standard of living of women, improvement in neonatal medical care and better equipment of hospital wards in 2015 as compared to 2000.

High normal blood pressure and hypertension among Polish students: prevalence and risk factors
Dominika Szafraniec, Wojciech Czarny

The purpose of this work was twofold: to determine prevalence of hypertension and high normal blood pressure in university students, and to assess impact of body weight status, field of study and elected
lifestyle factors on the arterial blood pressure (BP) values. The research was conducted in a group of 731 male and female full-time academic students who volunteered as participants in the study. The thickness of skinfolds was measured in three standard places. The percentage of fat was determined using the body composition analyzer. Body height and mass, waist circumference, hips and the largest right thigh circumference were measured and anthropometric indices calculated. The blood pressure values were measured according to the Korotkov method. Data were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods, oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis. The chi-square test of independence and linear regression analysis were used to assess impact of selected factors on BP values. High normal BP was found in 19% of women and 23% of men, and hypertension in 10% of women and 32% of men. Factors having a very high effect on BP values in both women and men were the somatic structure and fat content in the body. A positive correlation was found between subscapularis muscle fatty infiltration and BP values in both women and men. Majority of lifestyle factors were not associated with BP values but smoking and alcohol consumption. The field of study and level of physical activity were directly associated with high normal BP and hypertension. In conclusion it should be stated that high blood pressure is a growing problem in young adult people with men being more likely to be exposed to this condition than women.

Predicting longevity from the line of life: is it accurate?
Teghan Lucas, Amrita Dhugga, Maciej Henneberg

Palmistry or Chiromancy is the art of reading lines on the palm of the hands. Today, many researchers believe that the lines on the palms of the hands can predict the individual’s future. Computer programs are being designed which can automatically read the lines on the palm of the hand. One popular theory is that the length of the line of life will indicate lifespan. This theory was investigated in 1974 by Wilson and Mather who found no significant correlation between life expectancy and the length of the line of life. In 1990 Newrick and colleagues found a significant correlation as measured on 100 cadavers. These conflicting investigations are the only existing studies which have explored the relationship between palmistry and longevity. Since then no other study has validated nor disproven these claims. A total of 60 cadavers donated to The University of Adelaide were used in this study. Total hand length and the line of life length were measured on all cadavers. The age at and cause of death were also recorded. Linear regressions were used to establish any correlations between longevity and the length of the line of life. No significant correlations were found. There was also no significant difference between males and females
or the right or left hands. As no significant correlations were found between longevity and the line of life all efforts at producing more reliable and automatic ways to read the lines are futile. This study puts to rest any debate surrounding the use of the line of life in palmistry as introduced by Newrick and colleagues.

Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) among Sonowal Kachari tribal preschool children of flood effected region of Assam, India
Nitamoni Bharali, Kh. Narendra Singh, Nitish Mondal

Undernutrition is considered to be a serious public health problem in most of the developing countries. Globally, the anthropometric measures are widely used to estimate the magnitude of undernutrition in children. The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) provides the overall magnitude of undernutrition as an aggregate single measure over the conventional anthropometric indices and helps in identification of single or double or multiple anthropometric failures in preschool children. The present investigation assesses the age-sex specific prevalence of undernutrition using both conventional anthropometric measures and CIAF among Sonowal Kachari tribal preschool children of Assam, India. This cross-sectional investigation was carried out among 362 (162 boys and 190 girls) Sonowal Kachari tribal children younger than 5 years of flood affected regions of Lakhimpur district of Assam, India. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were measured using standard procedures. Age-sex specific Z-score value of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were calculated by using WHO-Anthro, v. 3.2.2. A child Z-score <−2.00 of any anthropometric indices was considered to be undernourished and the standard CIAF classification was used to calculate the prevalence of undernutrition. The overall prevalence of wasting, underweight, stunting and CIAF was observed to be 11.6%, 22.9%, 36.2%, and 48.6%, respectively. The sex-specific prevalence of wasting (15.8% vs. 6.9%), underweight (30.5% vs. 14.5%) and stunting (42.1% vs. 29.6%) observed to be significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.05). The girls (61.05%) were found to be more affected than boys (34.9%) by CIAF (p<0.01). The present investigation reported higher magnitude of undernutrition using CIAF over conventional anthropometric measures, hence the CIAF is relatively better indicator that reflects higher magnitude of undernourishment as compared to any conventional anthropometric indices in children. This research investigation has also reinforced the importance of appropriate intervention programme and strategies needed to reduce the prevalence of undernutrition in childhood and in population as a whole.

Is digit ratio (2D:4D) associated with the choice for the uniformed versus a civil study course by the Polish youth?
Marek Kociuba, Raja Chakraborty, Zofia Ignasiak, Sławomir Kozieł

The 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait determined by the relative balance of prenatal testosterone (T) and oestrogen during the intrauterine development of foetus. Males on average have relatively lower 2D:4D than women in population. Lower 2D:4D is very often linked with greater physical ability, strength, superior sporting performance and many personality traits and behaviours which are seen more among the males. Recently, lower 2D:4D were associated with military and police services among the Polish women. The objectives of this study were to examine whether 2D:4D differed between the students of a study course for future military service and a civil study course and whether sex difference in this ratio is present in both these groups. The cross sectional study included 50 boys and 42 girls enrolled in the uniformed course and other 56 boys and 50 girls of a general course in an upper-secondary School. The lengths of the second (2D) and fourth fingers (4D) of each hand were measured to have the 2D:4D ratio. Height and weight were also recorded. Overall, as well as among the civil course students, males showed significantly lower mean 2D:4D compared to the females. But there was no significant sex difference in digit ratio among the uniformed course students. Besides, the females under uniformed course showed lower 2D:4D than the females in civil course, whereas, the male uniformed students had similar or almost same 2D:4D values with the male civil course students. Increased prenatal testosterone exposure might have a role in determining the choice towards a challenging future occupation and such effect is perhaps more pronounced in women than in males. 

Non-metric traits, physiological stress indicators and paleopathological lesion on human skeletal remains from an early modern cemetery in Wyszyński Street, Wrocław, Poland (15th–18th centuries AD)
Agnieszka Tomaszewska, Barbara Kwiatkowska

The anthropological analysis and assessment of the living conditions of historical populations should be comprehensive. Due to the scarcity of the well-preserved skeletal remains of a population buried at the cemetery in Wyszyński Street, Wrocław, each piece of information is particularly important in providing the complementary information about living and health conditions of late medieval and early modern inhabitants of Wrocław. This study aims to assess the living conditions of the late medieval and early modern Wrocław inhabitants. This aim was reached by analyzing the frequency of non-metrical cranial and postcranial traits, physiological stress indicators, and pathological lesions. The importance of these traits for population studies is also discussed. For 98 skeletons (22.4% male and 37.8% female) from a cemetery located in Wyszyński Street, (15th –18th centuries AD), the frequencies (p) of the following traits were analyzed: 38 non-metric cranial and 9 post-cranial traits, the morphological indicators of physiological stress (i.e. cribra orbitalia and enamel hypoplasia), caries and pathological lesions on bones. Among the non-metric cranial traits, only nine (23.7%) were not observed. The most frequent (from p= 0.30 to p=0.65) were foramen parietale, incisura frontalis accesoria seu foramen frontale accesorius, foramen supraorbitale, M3 mandibulare, ossicula suturae lambdoideae, and foramen mastoideum extrasuturale. Only three non-metric post-cranial traits
were observed, but with low frequency (p=0.01 and 0.02). Cribra orbitalia was present in 37.0% of the skeletons while enamel hypoplasia was present in only 2.6%. Susceptibility to caries occurred in 68% of the cases while carries lesions occurred in 31.2%. Among pathological changes, the most frequent were degenerative changes (21.6%) and injuries (19.6%). Owing to the poorly preserved remains, the complete assessment of the living conditions of the population was difficult. The number of the observed traits would have probably increased, had the number of complete and well-preserved skeletons been higher. The results of the study suggest that the living conditions of the studied population were poor. It is hypothesized that the cemetery was a burial place for prisoners and victims of various epidemics that affected the city. But since the historical sources of this cemetery are scarce, it is hard to unequivocally state its purpose with certainty.

The prevalence of under-nutrition among the tribal children in India: a systematic review
Uposoma Dey, Samiran Bisai

Tribal population of India constitutes 8.6% of the total population. They are more susceptible to undernutrition which is recognized as a prevalent health problem mainly because of their uncertainty of food supply, which has serious long term consequences for the child and adversely influences the development of the nation. The assessment of nutritional status is paramount importance because it impels to identify malnutrition which is an aggravation of morbidity and mortality. This review was aimed to find out the overall nutritional status of tribal preschool children. It also seek the major socio-cultural causes which influence the nutritional status from bio-cultural perspectives among the tribal children in India in order to make foundation of new research. In the present review, 41 papers on nutritional status of tribal preschool children published from January 1st 2000 till date, have been identified and included for analysis. To analyze the data, meta-analysis was done using MedCalc software. The meta-analysis revealed the average rate of prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting among the preschool tribal children of India was 42.96%; 44.82% and 23.69%. Among the 41 different studies these rates vary among the different tribal groups of different states associated with their socio-economic status (10%), their cultures of food consumption (10%), maternal education (15%), child feeding practices (20%), dietary deficit during pregnancy (25%) and poor nutrition of the child (52%). Prevalence rate of under-nutrition and stunting is relatively high in comparison to WHO in India whereas, rate of wasting was lower in comparison to national level which reflect that immediate nutritional status was poor but chronic deficiency of nutrition was less. Nutritional education and short term appropriately planned nutritional intervention programs may also be useful for enhancing their nutritional status. 

Volume 82, 2019, Issue 1

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society


Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among type 2 diabetic mellitus Syrian patients according to NCEP-ATP III and IDF diagnostic criteria
M Adel Bakir, Kholoud Hammad, Khaled Bagdadi

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important group of components responsible of high incidence of cardio-vascular disease (CVD) and stroke among the type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) patients. Studies on the prevalence of the MetS and its components among DM patients are limited in developing countries and such studies never been done in Syria before. The objectives of current study were two-folds: (a) to investigate the prevalence of MetS in a group of DM Syrian patients as defined by NCEP-ATP Ш and IDF diagnostic criteria, and (b) to identify the individual MetS associated risk factors components in the studied group. A cross-sectional study carried out at one of the diabetic clinics of the health ministry in Damascus, Syria between 2016–2017. A random sample of 424 patients (209 males, 215 females) DM patients aged 40–79 years were participated in this study. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) were determined. The overall prevalence of the MetS was 67% and 69.3% according to the NCEP-ATP Ш and IDF criteria, respectively. The prevalence was higher in females and increased with age. According to NCEP/ATP III criteria and for the overall group, high TG was the most prevalent component of the MetS. However, when an IDF criterion was applied, central obesity was the commonest component in the overall group. According to both diagnostic criteria, hypertension was significantly higher in males while central obesity was dominated in females (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the results revealed high prevalence of the MetS in DM Syrian patients using both diagnostic criteria but slightly higher with IDF criteria. Especial care, health awareness, life style modifications, and proper medications should be directed towards controlling the risk factors components of this syndrome.

Prevalence of anaemia and associated factors among Oraon females of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India
Tanaya Kundu Chowdhury, Subrata K. Roy

Low haemoglobin level or anaemia is a health problem worldwide especially in developing countries
like India. Anaemia is generally higher among indigenous groups compared to general population
globally and females are specifically more prone to anaemia. However, studies are inadequate on indigenous groups of India. The aims of the study are to determine the prevalence of anaemia among the female Oraons of North 24 Parganas and to study the association between anaemia and concomitants like socio-demographic and food habit variables. Data have been collected on demographic, socio-economic and food habit variables using well-tested questionnaire from 309 Oraon females living in rural and urban areas of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal. Haemoglobin data were collected using standard instrument and technique. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the data using SPSS version 16.0. Females of rural and urban areas were mostly married and non-literate, employed as labourers and had sedentary occupations. Majority of them consume fruits and vegetables but less animal protein and dairy product. Around 80% of the females were anaemic, irrespective of their habitat, socio-economic status and food habits. Anaemic status was associated with insufficient intake of animal protein, which is significantly associated with the anaemia status of the females in the present study.

An assessment of Body Mass Index and sensitive period for overweight development in Macao students at primary school age
Walter King Yan Ho, Md. Dilsad Ahmed, Chi Ian Leong, Patrick Chan, Rudolph Leon Van Niekerk, Fan Huang, Jessica Chen, Nikon Chan, João Silva, Patrick Ip

The concomitant risk of physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle development causing various
non-communicable diseases is recognized worldwide. Therefore, development of strategies to form a concrete public health policy overcoming this problem is most important. This study observed the distribution and changes of Body Mass Index (BMI) over six years among boys and girls. Data on children height and weight and their BMI were collected. A total of 5369 (3368 male and 2001 female) children were recruited from 10 schools in Macao. The children were 6 years old in 2008 and turned 11 in 2013. Statistical analyses involved descriptive statistics, t-test, and a Chi-squared test. The findings indicated greater BMI among males than females across all age at the 0.05 level of significance, and the ages of 8 and 9 seemed to be a sensitive period for an increase in overweight and obesity. The results indicate the need to have focused strategies and structured interventions for males at the critical ages from 8 to 9 years.

Asymmetry patterns are associated with body size and somatic robustness among adult !Kung San and Kavango people
Sylvia Kirchengast

Asymmetry of bilateral anatomical structures is widely found in nature. Fluctuating asymmetry,
i.e. mostly tiny random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilateral structures, is mainly interpreted
within the framework of developmental instability. This interpretation is mainly due to the fact, that higher fluctuating asymmetry is often found in association with various pathological conditions but also from increased stress during somatic development. Directional asymmetry, in contrast, describes a distinct pattern of bilateral variation in a group of individuals, characterized by the tendency to find the larger side mainly at the same side for all individuals. This kind of asymmetry is mostly caused by behavioral lateralization. Somatic stress during development affect not only asymmetry patterns, it is has also an adverse effect on somatic growth. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis, that increased asymmetry is associated with decreased body height as well as postcranial length and robustness dimensions. The association patterns between fluctuating as well as directional asymmetry and parameters of somatic growth and robustness are analyzed among 236 !Kung San and 248 Kavango people of Namibia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. Fluctuating asymmetry was determined by ear length and ear breadth. Directional asymmetry was determined by hand length and hand breadth dimensions. Fluctuating as well as directional asymmetry correlated significantly negatively with body height and length dimensions, the correlations however, were weak. The results are interpreted as a corroboration of the theory that developmental stress may increase fluctuating asymmetry but on the other hand may decrease body size.

Revealing burden of elevated blood pressure among Polish adolescent participants in a population-based ADOPOLNOR study: prevalence and potent risk factors
Alicja Krzyżaniak, Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Małgorzata Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Aldona Siwińska, Maria Kaczmarek

New category for elevated blood pressure introduced and described by JNC-7 for adults and adopted by the 2004 Working Group for children and adolescents stands for a pre-sign to hypertension. The ongoing rise in prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents demands their regular screening. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of elevated BP in Polish adolescents and explain the role of sex, age and body weight status as potent risk factors for this condition. A population-based cross-sectional survey was carried out on a sample of 4,941 students (2,451 boys and 2,490 girls) aged 10–18, participants in the ADOPOLNOR study. Body height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Blood pressure was measured twice on each visit on the right arm using a fully calibrated TECH MED TM-Z mercury gauge sphygmomanometer with sets of exchangeable cuffs and a clinical stethoscope. The blood pressure classification was determined using the surveillance method. The depended outcome variable was the elevated BP compared to normal BP for systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and combined SBP and/or DBP. Explanatory variables included demographic characteristics, sex and age, and weight status. Two-way ANCOVA, Chi-square Pearson correlation, and multivariate logistic regression analysis (MLRA) were performed using the STATISTICA 13.1 data analysis software system; p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant (StatSoft Inc. Tulsa, OK, USA). A clear gender pattern was found in prevalence of elevated BP with girls being more likely than boys to have elevated BP (4.9%, 5.3% and 7.4% for SBP, DBP and combined SBP and/or DBP in girls vs 3.5%, 3.5% and 5.9% in boys). The proportion of both genders with elevated BP gradually increased with age with 4.8% (SBP), 2.8% (DBP) and 5.8% (SBP and/or DBP), and 5.1%, 6.4% and 8.4% in early and late adolescence, respectively. Fifteen percent of obese adolescents had elevated SBP, 14.3% elevated DBP and 17.8% had elevated either SBP and/or DBP combined. At multivariate approach, the adjusted odds ratio for predictors of elevated BP revealed sex, age and weight status for SBP and SBP and/or DPB combined. Age and weight status were predictive for elevated DBP. Weight status (BMI) showed the highest predictive potential of elevated BP for both genders. The likelihood of developing elevated BP increased at least twice with each BMI category increase. Thus, overweight and obese adolescents were twice (overweight) and 4 to 5 times (obese) more likely than their normal weight counterparts in developing elevated BP. The study results confirmed predictive potential of sex, age, and weight status in developing elevated BP in adolescents. The highest odds of the weight status indicate that it is the strongest confounder of elevated BP condition.

Trends in caries experience and background factors in 3-year-old children in Poland: evidence from epidemiological surveys during 2002–2017
Anna Turska-Szybka, Urszula Kaczmarek, Dariusz Gozdowski, Jacek Tomczyk, Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk

The prevalence of early childhood caries and its level varies. The present study was to establish the trends in dental caries and the impact of behavioural changes on the prevalence of caries in three-yearolds in Poland within a fifteen-year period. The results of a cross sectional survey carried out on 3439 three-year-olds in 2002, 2009, and 2017 using WHO criteria for dental caries (dmft, dmft=0, dmft≥4) and the results of a questionnaire filled by their parents with data on sociodemographics, oral hygiene and dietary habits, especially their sugar intake, were assessed. The dmft/dmfs index is applied to the primary dentition and is expressed as the total number of teeth/surfaces that are decayed, missing, or filled. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to assess the fraction changes in time. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the changes in dmft trends and the correlations between behavioural changes, awareness levels, and the prevalence of caries. Within the fifteen-year period minimal changes in the prevalence of early childhood caries (15% down), dmft≥4 (11.4% down) and a lower dmft (36% down) were accompanied by a better parent awareness about the causes of caries and better oral hygiene routines. Sugary beverages were no longer drank at least once a day, however sweetened milk, cake, doughnuts, and sweet rolls were consumed more often. Being female, living in an urban area, having parents more aware about caries, consuming sugary beverages less frequently, brushing teeth twice a day, and using a fluoride toothpaste promoted lower early childhood caries. Gradually healthier teeth are linked to an increased awareness of the parents and healthier routines. A too frequent exposure to sugar promotes early childhood caries. Should the changes of dietary habits be insufficient, brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste becomes crucial.

Odontological analysis of Polish children with unilateral cleft lip and palate
Piotr Sękowski, Elżbieta Żądzińska, Elżbieta Pawłowska, Aneta Sitek, Bogusław Antoszewski

Tooth size, being the effect of interaction of genetic and prenatal factors, could be of importance
in interpreting the multifactor causes of cleft lip/palate. Publications indicating decreased tooth
parameters, no dental differences, or larger dimensions of teeth in cleft lip/palate patients. Researchers report mostly mesiodistal (MD) measurements of maxillary (affected) teeth. There is a lack of data for buccolingual (BL) diameters. Both MD and BL parameters have influence on the planning and performance of orthodontic treatment. The aim of this paper was to assess differences in mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions in Polish children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in comparison to patients without oral clefts. A total of 1883 permanent teeth, 1182 teeth of UCLP patients and 701 teeth of healthy participants were analyzed. Tooth diameters were performed using an orthodontic cast of dentition with a digital odontometer. The greatest anomalies were found in both maxillary canines and consisted of their reduced mesiodistal dimension and increased buccolingual dimension, resulting in a pathologically high crown shape index (BL/MD). Conclusion can be drawn that unilateral cleft lip and palate is a condition that causes morphological disturbances of varying severity in most mandibular and maxillary teeth both on the cleft and non-cleft sides.

Volume 81, 2018, Issue 4

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society


Association of socio-culture factors with disordered eating behavior: An empirical study on urban young girls of West Bengal, India
Nandini Ganguly, Subho Roy, Susmita Mukhopadhyay

A shift towards the concept of thin body image is occurring among the urban girls, as an outcome of mass media exposure. A large section of the girls are involved in attaining thin body image which at times develops dissatisfaction over body weight. Body weight dissatisfaction gives rise to the development of body weight concern and disordered eating behavior. The present research aimed to find out the association of socio-cultural factors with disordered eating behavior among a group of urban girls. The study group included 400 girls aged between 14 and 21 years, residing in the city of Howrah, West Bengal, eastern state of India. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, body weight concern, media habits, and family-peer environments was collected using standard pretested questionnaires. A cross-culturally tested questionnaire developed by Srinivasan and colleagues in 1998, was used to measure disordered eating behavior. Bivariate analyses found significant associations between eating behavior and several socio-cultural factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that education level of fathers and birth order of the participants, body weight concern and peers’ influence were the significant predictors of disordered eating behavior of the study participants. Socio-cultural factors have significant associations with the disordered eating behavior of the study participants.

Body composition and physical performance of Slovak Ice hockey players with different training approach during pre-season preparation
Veronika Candráková Čerňanová, Ján Čerňan, Zuzana Danková, Daniela Siváková

The pre-season preparation aim is to improve the components of physical performance through the changes in training intensity, gradual increment in volume, variation in training frequency and optimizing the body composition. The problem in team sports is the lack of individualization, because most coaches in team sports focus their training on the group and not on improving each player’s strengths and weaknesses. The aim of this study is to identify differences in the body composition and physical performance of young ice-hockey players (15-18 years) with different pre-season training approaches (collective vs. individual). This longitudinal study monitored 13 ice-hockey players with collective training and 8 ice-hockey players with individual training during their pre-season preparation. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance analyzer BIA 101 (Akern, S.R.L.) and the Myotest PRO determined player physical performance in power, force and velocity. Performance and body composition comparisons showed gradual increase in the differences between the two studied groups during the training process. This increase escalated to significant differences in the final output test results and was especially noted in the upper limbs power and force (p=0.016; p<0.001) and lower limbs power and force (p=0.029; p=0.001) with better performance results by individual training approach. Stepwise linear regression also showed significant relationship between upper limbs power, resistance (p<0.001) and fat mass (p<0.001). The upper limbs force was significantly associated with intra-cellular (p<0.001) and extracellular water (p=0.026), body cell mass index (p<0.001), basal metabolic rate (p<0.001) and training approach (p<0.001), while the lower limbs power was significantly associated with total body water (p<0.001), training approach (p=0.033) and the pre-season preparation phase (p<0.001). In addition, the training approach (p<0.001), preparation phase (p<0.001), player position (p=0.012) and fat free mass (p<0.001) were significantly associated with lowers limb force. Our results indicate the importance of using an individual training approach and optimal body composition in physical performance progression. 

Sex differences in relationship between body composition and digit length ratio (2D:4D) in students of military courses
Marek Kociuba, Zofia Ignasiak, Anna Sebastjan, Katarzyna Kochan, Ireneusz Cichy, Andrzej Dudkowski, Marcin Ściślak, Sławomir Kozieł

It is believed that the second to fourth finger length ratio is an indirect indicator of fetal testosterone levels. It is pointed out that there is a relationship between the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio and the body structure in women and men. Studies on the relationship between body composition and 2D:4D finger length among military students have not been carried out so far. The work aims to determine the dependence of body composition and the quotient of the 2nd and 4th fingers length of military students. The research material has been gathered as a result of examinations of women and men studying military subjects. The study involved 55 women and 65 men. The tests included anthropometric measurements (body height, body weight, length of the second and the fourth fingers) and body composition measurements. As a result of the tests, no dimorphic differentiations in the digit length ratio (2D:4D) was indicated. The BMI, muscle mass, lean body mass and water in the body demonstrated higher values in men than in women. However, the fat content in men was low. It was found that the relationship exists between muscle mass, lean mass and total water content in the body and the 2D:4D finger length ratio in the left hand in women. A higher level of fetal testosterone, characterized by lower values of the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio, may be associated with a higher content of muscle mass, lean body mass and water in the body of adult women leading a similar lifestyle.

Facial attractiveness and lip morphology of Caucasian women
Zdzisław Lewandowski, Dariusz P. Danel

Human lips are one of the most sexually dimorphic facial features. Although lip morphology is considered particularly important for female facial attractiveness no systematic empirical study has been conducted in this respect. This study aimed to investigate a relationship between female Caucasian facial attractiveness and their lip morphology. Two series of morphologically average composite portraits with digitally increased and decreased lip width and height measurements were assessed by adult men and women. Results were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA. When compared to the average lip shape both a decrease and an increase in lip width were associated with lower female facial attractiveness. A systematic increase in lip height from the lowest values to the highest, was associated with an increase in attractiveness scores. Attractiveness assessments of men and women did not differ significantly. The results show that perception of lip attractiveness may be intersexually congruent and that a variation in lip morphology may significantly affect female facial attractiveness.

Analysis of limb movement synchronization in primates locomotion
Zofia Sikorska-Piwowska, Piotr Śliwka, Bogdan Ciszek

The authors present an original mathematical model based on features identified with discrete variables using vector and hierarchical cluster analysis in primates locomotion. Proposed model allows to formalize and analyze the synchronization variability of movements in given locomotion types of adaptation and specialization in monkeys, apes and humans. The material covers observations of 102 forms including 9 species of primates: the chimpanzee, bonobo, orangutan, gibbon, gelada, mandrill, brown capuchin and ring–tailed lemur. The studies included also the synchronization of locomotory movements in man. The sequences of moves of pectoral and pelvic limbs, right and left, were studied in four categories: walking, running, jumping and brachiation. The locomotion movements depend on the brain centers and allow to find phylogenetic relations between examined forms in the evolution process. The knowledge of the pattern of movements is used in the treatment of paraplegia and paraparesis in humans.

Periodontitis in 14th–17th century inhabitants of Brześć Kujawski in north-central Poland
Justyna Karkus

Manifestations of periodontitis, the destructive form of periodontal disease affecting the alveolar bone, are often clearly recognizable in archaeological human remains. Analysis of this disease allows to obtain data not only about biological condition but also diet and nutrition of past populations. The objective of this paper was to asses periodontitis in the Polish urban population of Brześć Kujawski during Medieval – Modern transition (14th–17th centuries AD). An attempt was also made to explain the relationship between atrophy of alveolar bones and the type of diet. Lowering of alveolar crests was diagnosed based on measurements of the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar crest edge (CEJ– AC) distance and morphology of the alveolar edge. In studied population periodontitis affected 77.1% of individuals and 41.4% of all alveoli. Frequency, intensity and severity of the disease was higher in males and increased with the individual’s age. Severity of alveolar destruction was associated with dental calculus accumulation. It seems that a high prevalence of the disease may be, among others, result of carbohydrate-rich diet and fragmented food. Sex differences could be related to differences in diet (especially in protein intake) and hormone levels or lack of oral hygiene in part of the population.

Body weight status is not a predictive factor of depressive symptoms in Polish adolescents aged 13-18 years
Sylwia Trambacz-Oleszak, Alicja Krzyżaniak, Ineza Szafrańska-Komarowska, Maria Kaczmarek

Depression and unhealthy weight status are among the most common concerns in adolescent boys and girls. Research results on the relationship between depression and weight status are contradictory. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between body weight status and depressive symptoms among Polish adolescent boys and girls. The cross-sectional survey was carried out on adolescents attending lower and higher secondary schools located in three medium-sized cities and one big agglomeration in Poland. Anthropometric measurements, such as body height and weight, were performed. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to assess depressive symptoms. The total sample consisted of 624 boys and 910 girls aged 13-18 (the mean age was 16.4 ± 1.8) participated in the study. Of them, 73.3% had a healthy weight status, 12.9% were classified as thin, 11.4% were overweight and 2.5% were obese. The prevalence of depression based on BDI-II was 20.2% in boys and 34.9% in girls. The Kruskal–Wallis test revealed a lack of association between the body weight status and total scores of depressive symptoms after controlling for age (p=0.98 and p=0.4 for boys and girls, respectively). The multiple regression analysis revealed that gender and age differentiated the depressive symptoms (for gender: ß=0.19; SE=0.38; p<0.001 and for age: ß=0.05; SE=0.1; p<0.05). Age and gender explained 3.5% of the total variance of depressive symptoms. The study did not confirm the association between the body weight status and depression in adolescence

Volume 81, 2018, Issue 3

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society 


The affinities of Homo antecessor – a review of craniofacial features and their taxonomic validity
Francesc Ribot Trafí, Mario García Bartual, Qian Wang

The phylogenetic affinities of Homo antecessor, a hominin dating from the early Middle Pleistocene of Europe, are still unclear. In this study we conducted a comprehensive review of the TD6 hypodigm within the context of the historical development of paleoanthropological issues concerning this species. H. antecessor, based on all available craniofacial features to date, displays a midfacial morphology very similar to specimens attributed to Classic Homo erectus, suggesting that H. antecessor is the geographical European variant of Classic H. erectus.

A glance of genetic relations in the Balkan populations utilizing network analysis based on in silico assigned Y-DNA haplogroups
Emir Šehović, Martin Zieger, Lemana Spahić, Damir Marjanović, Serkan Dogan

The aim of this study is to provide an insight into Balkan populations’ genetic relations utilizing in silico analysis of Y-STR haplotypes and performing haplogroup predictions together with network analysis of the same haplotypes for visualization of the relations between chosen haplotypes and Balkan populations in general. The population dataset used in this study was obtained using 23, 17, 12, 9 and 7 Y-STR loci for 13 populations. The 13 populations include: Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, Greece, Romany (Hungary), Hungary, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Kosovo, Romania and Bulgaria. The overall dataset contains a total of 2179 samples with 1878 different haplotypes. I2a was detected as the major haplogroup in four out of thirteen analysed Balkan populations. The four populations (B&H, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia) which had I2a as the most prevalent haplogroup were all from the former Yugoslavian republic. The remaining two major populations from former Yugoslavia, Macedonia and Slovenia, had E1b1b and R1a haplogroups as the most prevalent, respectively. The populations with E1b1b haplogroup as the most prevalent one are Macedonian, Romanian, as well as Albanian populations from Kosovo and Albania. The I2a haplogroup cluster is more compact when compared to E1b1b and R1b haplogroup clusters, indicating a larger degree of homogeneity within the haplotypes that belong to the I2a haplogroup. Our study demonstrates that a combination of haplogroup prediction and network analysis represents an effective approach to utilize publicly available Y-STR datasets for population genetics.

Assessment of nutritional status by composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF): a study among preschool children of Sagar Block, South 24 Parganas District, West Bengal, India
Sadaruddin Biswas, Som Prasad Giri, Kaushik Bose

Being a developing nation, rural India is still facing a serious health problem in form of undernutrition particularly among young children. To optimize this problem, the Central Government has been operating a nationwide nutritional intervention programme in the form of Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) scheme. Unfortunately, it has failed to achieve the desired goal during last four decades. Therefore the present study was designed to measure the seriousness and severity of overall undernutrition using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) among the rural Bengalee preschool children of Sagar Block, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 656 preschool children (326 boys and 330 girls) aged 3 to 5 years. Height (cm) and weight (kg) measurements were taken according to standard procedure, age and sex specific 2 z-scores values of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age were used to assess stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively, as per the World Health Organization Guidelines. CIAF was also computed as per standard methodology to assess the degree of undernutrition among the studied children. The overall age and sex combined prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight and CIAF was 26.2%, 35.4%, 51.1% and 61.3%, respectively. CIAF showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition (61.28%) in comparison to other three indicators i.e., stunting, wasting and underweight. We conclude that the nutritional status of the subjects was not satisfactory. It was also established that the CIAF is a better indicator of nutritional status than traditional measures of stunting, wasting and underweight, because it determines overall (total) anthropometric failure.

The validity of parental-reported body height and weight: a comparison with objective measurements of 7-8-year-old Czech children
Zborilova Vendula, Pridalova Miroslava, Sigmundova Dagmar, Kaplanova Tereza

The values of body weight and height can be recorded in various ways. Self-reports and parentalreport methods are amongst the most typical ways to collect data. These methods have advantages, but also limits. Anthropometric measures are recommended to improve measurement precision. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the parental-reported body weight and height of 7-8-year-old Czech children corresponded with the measured body weight and height. Data concerning children’s body weight and body height were collected via parental informed consent and anthropometric measurements. The research sample consisted of 388 children from 7 to 8 years-old (boys, n = 176; girls, n = 162). Only children with parental informed consent were included. Correlations between parental-reported and measured data were analysed with the Pearson correlation coefficient to examine the strength of linear dependence between the two methods. The differences between parental-reported and measured data were tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. P-values below α = 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Parents manifested a tendency to underestimate body weight and especially the body height of their children. This trend was seen in boys and girls in both age groups. Out of the 338 children with parent-reported height, parents under-reported their child’s height by 1 cm or more in 37.1% of the children, 39.6% of the parents reported a height within 0.99 cm of the measured height, and 23.3% of parents over-reported their child’s height by 1 cm or more. The same number of children had parentreported weights, parents under-reported their child’s weight by 1 kg and more in 25.2% of the children, 57.7% of the parents reported a weight within 0.99 kg of the measured weight, and 17.1% of the parents over-reported their child’s weight by 1 kg or more. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the measured and parental-reported height and weight revealed a statistically significant strong positive linear relationship in both genders (rheight = 0.912, rweight = 0.943; all p< 0.001). The differences between the measured and parental-reported height and weight were not significantly different (all p< 0.05). The high agreement and correlation between measured and parental-reported body height and weight suggest that parental-report methods can be an appropriate alternative to objective measurement and can be used as a valid tool to classify body height and weight for large population studies of Czech children in school-based research when anthropometric measures are not available.

The effects of selected lifestyle components on the risk of developing dynapenia in women – a pilot study
Aleksandra Bogucka, Anna Kopiczko, Anna Głębocka

Aging processes in a body inevitably lead to changes which may decrease the quality of life of the elderly. Dynapenia is a phenomenon which is still not well known and needs to be studied in the population. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of lifestyle on the risk of developing dynapenia in post-menopausal women. The study included 46 females aged 71.4 ±5.6 living in the town of Wysokie Mazowieckie. Basic body dimensions and body composition elements were assessed with the use of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). A direct interview method with the use of the modified Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) was applied. In order to assess the prevalence of dynapenia, handgrip strength was measured with the use of hydraulic dynamometer. Physical activity was assessed with the use of a pedometer. The respondents’ nutrition was examined in an interview concerning their diet from the 24 hours preceding the examination according to the methodology of Food and Nutrition Institute (FNI). The intake of energy and nutritional elements in a diet was calculated with using DIETA 5.0 computer software. Dynapenia was diagnosed in 21.7% of the examined women. The women with dynapenia had significantly bigger waist and hip circumferences and higher BMI (p<0.05) as well as significantly weaker hand muscles than healthy women (p<0.001). Females with dynapenia spent significantly more time in a sedentary position, i.e. talking on the phone, participating in religious rituals or watching TV (p<0.05) compared to women without dynapenia. No significant differences concerning the diet of women with and without dynapenia were revealed. Physical activity may significantly decrease the risk of dynapenia among women over 60 years of age. Furher research is needed to assess the risk of dynapenia and methods of its prevention.

Anthropometric profile of female handball players is related to bone mineral density
Anna Pastuszak, Michał Górski, Jan Gajewski, Krzysztof Buśko

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of a wide range of anthropometric parameters with BMD in normal-weight women: handball players and healthy untrained students. Thirteen former female handball players, (age 21.2±0.9 years, body mass 64.2±6.1 kg, training experience 6.7±2.4 years) and 51 randomly selected untrained students (age 20.6±1.2 years, body mass 58.1±6.8 kg), were examined. The anthropometric measurements included 16 variables. BMD was measured on the radius of the non-dominant hand at distal and proximal points with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using a Norland pDEXA densitometer. Relationships between BMD and anthropometric variables were assessed in 64 normal-weight women (BMI≥18.5 and ≤ 24.99 kg/m2), by calculating Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. We found a significant positive relationship between bone mass characteristics and biacromial breadth (0.30-0.53), calf (0.28-0.47) and arm (0.27-0.42) girth corrected, and lean body mass (LBM) (kg) (0.38-0.61) and (%) (0,27) in the group of normal-weight women. The student groups were significantly different (analysis of variance with Scheffé post hoc test, p<0.001) in BMD, bone mineral content (BMC) and Z-score at both measured points. The former handball players were also characterized by higher body mass and LBM (kg), as well as corrected body girths and biacromial breadth (p<0.001), compared to untrained students. The groups did not differ significantly in body height or total fat. The morphological profile of the female handball players is conducive to BMD. Skeletal characteristics and muscle tissue had a significant beneficial effect on bone mineral characteristics in young women with normal weight.

Dental health status of skeletal remains excavated from an abandoned well at Ajnala, India: a bioarchaeological study
Jagmahender Singh Sehrawat, Monika Singh

Present study was conducted to assess dental health status of the mid-19th century skeletal remains excavated from an abandoned ancient well and to scrutinize the demographic affiliations of the remains. Thousands of bones, teeth and contextual items were excavated non-scientifically from an abandoned well situated underneath a religious structure at Ajnala (Amritsar, India). Four thousands four hundred and seventy five teeth of each type were examined for presence of dental pathologies of caries, wear and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH). The frequency distribution of each pathological state was calculated for each tooth type using international dental standards available in the literature. The overall dental status was characteristic of young individuals having low prevalence of dental caries and enamel hypoplasiac lesions. Very few teeth had seriously exposed dentine and pulp cavity; indicating consumption of some cariogenic food items. The maxillary and posterior teeth were more affected with dental caries than the mandibular and anterior teeth. LEH defects were found more commonly distributed in the lower canines (44.9%) and upper incisors (34.8%) than their corresponding counterparts and statistically significant differences were noticed in LEH prevalence between anterior and, posterior dentition. The overall percentage of LEH has been found as 15.8%; with 15.4% maxillary and 16.2% mandibular teeth being affected with LEH. The paleodontogical examinations, contextual items and the preliminary molecular findings supported the written versions that victims of Ajnala skeletal remains had sound dental health status and probably belonged to adult males who were killed in 1857 as per written versions.

Ovarian activity regulation by anti-Müllerian hormone in early stages of human female life, an overview
Małgorzata Jusiakowska-Piputa, Maria Kaczmarek

The present study aimed at describing the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), with special focus on molecular background for ovarian activity, in particular the role AMH plays in sex determination and gonadogenesis process in early stages of prenatal life and folliculogenesis in postnatal life. It is a review of the literature currently indexed and abstracted in MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Google Scholars. The process of sex determination and gonad differentiation occurring during embryogenesis was discussed along with underlying molecular mechanisms. In the postnatal life the impact of AMH on the process of folliculogenesis was described. Clinical use of recent findings was shown as well. Genetic studies and molecular analyses have demonstrated that AMH is highly conservative, indicating its significance in reproductive process on the background of evolutionary processes.

Volume 81, 2018, Issue 2

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society 



Body height and age at menarche of girls from eastern Poland in the period of political transformation
Jerzy Saczuk, Agnieszka Wasiluk, Adam Wilczewski

Biological state of a group of people or particular individuals in various phases of ontogenesis
should be treated as a positive health measure. The aim of the study was to assess the directions of
changes in body height and age at menarche of girls from eastern Poland in the years 1986-2016. The data regarding 30784 students aged 10-16 living in towns and villages of the eastern parts of such regions as Podkarpackie, Lubelskie, Podlaskie, Warminsko-mazurskie and, to a slight extent, Mazowieckie were used in the study. Body height was measured and information concerning the place of living and age at menarche (yes-no) was gathered during interviews. Acceleration of body height and age at menarche was observed in girls from the east of Poland in the period of political transformation and after European Union (EU) accession, while the level of secular trends was connected with the pace of changes in the environment. Biological effects of the EU preservation of Polish agriculture and particular care of the eastern provinces of Poland reduced developmental differences between these provinces and other regions of Poland. Moreover, in the analysed period of three decades (1986-2016), the disappearance of differences in body height and age at menarche between the inhabitants of rural and urban areas was noted, which indicates larger positive socio-economic changes in the countryside. In turn, greater body height was noted in non-menstruating girls compared to their menstruating counterparts. However, in subsequent observations, smaller differences between these groups were observed.

Percent of body fat, fat-mass, fat-free mass and assessment of body composition among rural school-going children of Eastern-India
Sampriti Debnath, Nitish Mondal, Jaydip Sen

Percent of body fat (PBF), fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) are useful indicators for the
assessment of body composition. The present study was conducted among 1351 children (boys: 660; girls: 691) aged 5–12 years residing in West Bengal, Eastern-India. The children were selected using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and sub-scapular skinfold (SSF) were recorded using standard procedures. The PBF, PBF-for-age z-score (PBFZ) and body mass index (BMI) were subsequently calculated. Body composition was assessed using FM, FFM, fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI). Age-specific mean values of FM ranged from 2.12–4.00 kg (boys) and 2.16–4.40 kg (girls). Age-specific mean values of FFM ranged from 14.45–23.93 kg (boys) and 14.01–23.03 kg (girls). Sex-specific mean differences between sexes were statistically significant in weight, height, TSF, SSF, PBF, PBFAZ, FM, FFM, FMI and FFMI (p<0.05), except in BMI (p>0.05). These results are important for future investigations in clinical and epidemiological settings so as to accurately identify the risk of lower or higher adiposity and body composition using PBF, FM and FFM.

Long-term changes in fat distribution in children and adolescents aged 3-18 from Krakow (Poland), within the last 30 years(from 1983 to 2010)
Łukasz Kryst, Agnieszka Woronkowicz, Małgorzata Kowal, Jan Sobiecki


In Poland, even in the late twentieth century, the problem of obesity was not significant.
However, recent studies have shown an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Socioeconomic changes, in last decades, approached Poland to Western Europe. A lifestyle of Poles (physical activity and diet) have changed radically. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in adiposity in children and adolescents over the last decades.
Two cross-sectional studies were made in 1983 and 2010. The analysis included 10,324 children and adolescents aged 3-18 living in Krakow (Poland). Data on selected skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, calf) were collected and compared between the series of studies. The total body fat (sum of 5 skinfolds) was higher in contemporary boys. In girls, there were not noticed such changes. In both sexes, the adiposity of triceps and supscapular region decreased. In the case of abdominal skinfold - there were no significant changes in boys, while contemporary girls had a smaller abdominal adiposity. In boys, there were noticed reduction in suprailiac skinfold thickness. In the case of girls, the reverse trend was reported - contemporary girls were characterized by higher suprailiac adiposity. Children studied in 2010 were characterized by greater calf skinfold. Changes in adiposity are worrying, especially in boys. The priority should therefore be effective prevention and intervention programs. They can prevent further deepening of the problem among Polish children, by the time it will be as severe as in Western Europe.

Enamel hypoplasia in a Mesolithic (5900±100 BC) individual from Woźna Wieś(Poland): a case study
Jacek Tomczyk, Agnieszka Ostrowska

Modern anthropological research includes very sophisticated diagnostic methods. They allow
us to obtain information that has not been available so far. The aim of this paper is to analyze, using current microscopic technologies, the Mesolithic dental material of one adult individual from Woźna Wieś (Poland). The present case study will focus on the analysis of enamel hypoplasia. A scanning electron
microscope (SEM) was used to count the number of perikymata building on the hypoplastic line. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) was diagnosed only on the right mandibular canine. The time of occurrence of environmental disturbance was estimated between about 4.2 and 4.9 years of age. The occlusal wall built the enamel hypoplasia with no more than three to four perikymata, meaning that the physiological stress had to have occurred over a fairly short period of time (about 30–40 days).

Associations between anthropometric indicators of adiposity and body fat percentage in normal weight young adults
Mustafa Söğüt, Kübra Altunsoy, Maria Inês Varela-Silva


The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between various
anthropometric adiposity screening indices and body fat percentage estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). A total of 186 (95 male and 91 female) normal weight (body mass index [BMI] = 18.5- 24.9 kg/m2) young adults (mean age= 20.96 ± 2.03 years) were measured on body fat percentage, body height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Abdominal volume index, body adiposity index, BMI, body roundness index, conicity index, reciprocal ponderal index, waist to height ratio, waist to height 0.5 ratio, and waist to hip ratio were calculated accordingly. Results revealed significant gender effects in all main anthropometric measurements. Except for waist to hip ratio, results indicated significant associations between anthropometric indices and BIA in both male and female participants. BIA results were found to be largely associated with BMI and abdominal volume index in both genders. Bland- Altman analysis showed good agreements between these indices and BIA. Considerable associations and agreements highlight the potential importance and the use of several anthropometric proxies to estimate body adiposity among male and female non-overweight/obese young adults. Despite continuing discussion regarding its accuracy, BMI seems to be useful for monitoring body adiposity within this cohort. 

Introducing the FIDENTIS 3D Face Database
Petra Urbanová, Zuzana Ferková, Marie Jandová, Mikoláš Jurda, Dominik Černý, Jiří Sochor

Face databases have assumed an important role in a variety of clinical and applied research
domains. However, the number of datasets accessible to the scientific community is limited and the
knowledge of their existence may be concealed from a wider range of specialists. In the present paper we introduce a sizeable dataset of 3D facial scans – FIDENTIS 3D Face Database (F3D-FD or FIDENTIS Database), which is accompanied by basic demographic and descriptive data. The database is structured according to recorded subjects, and comprises single-scan entries as well as a smaller number of multiscan entries. The multi-scan entries vary in the time passed between recording sessions and in the devices employed to collect the 3D data. The total number of 2476 individuals puts our database within the category of large-scale databases. The 3D scans are accessible through a web-based interface at www. A licensed version of the database is available to interested parties upon signing a license agreement. Because of its varied composition, and low target-specificity the database has capacity to be of great assistance for the worldwide research community.

The impact of maternal age on foetal growth patterns and newborn size
Franziska Kirchweger, Sylvia Kirchengast, Erich Hafner, Ingrid Stümpflein, Beda Hartmann

The association patterns between maternal age and foetal growth parameters as well as newborn size were analysed using a dataset of 4737 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube hospital. Foetal growth patterns were reconstructed by the results of three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33thweek of gestation. In detail, crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length were determined. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were measured immediately after birth. Young teenage mothers (≤15 years), older adolescent mothers (16-19 years), mothers of optimal age range (20-35 years) and mothers of advanced age (>35 years) differed significantly in body height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain. Surprisingly, the foetuses of young adolescent mothers were the largest ones during first trimester. During the second and third trimester however, the foetuses of mothers of optimal age range (20-35 years) and mothers older than 35 years showed larger biometric dimensions than adolescent mothers. According to multiple regression analyses, maternal age was significantly related to Foetal head size (ß =-0.04; 95% CI = -0,08 – 0.01; p=0.034) and abdominal dimensions (ß= 0.03; 95% CI = 0.01-0.05; p=0,011) during the second trimester and to birthweight (ß= -0.03; 95% CI= -4.40 – 0.04; p=0.050). The associations however, are quite weak and the statistical significance is maybe due to the large sample size. At the time of birth, offspring of mothers of optimal age range (20 to 35 years) is significantly larger than that of adolescent mothers and mothers of advanced age. Mothers of advanced age showed the significantly highest (p=<0.0001) prevalence (5.6%) of SGA newborns (<2500g). The small size of newborn among young adolescent mothers may be due to a competition over nutrients between the still growing mothers and the foetuses during the third trimester, while placental ageing may be responsible for smaller size of offspring among mothers of advanced age.

The relationship between the use of combined hormonal contraception with a predominance of gestagens and the selected types of female body in young women from the region of Lower Silesia
Aleksandra Karykowska, Barbara Kwiatkowska, Joanna Grzelak, Bożena Kurc-Darak, Zygmunt Domagała

Oral contraceptive agents are currently the most popular and one of the most effective methods for preventing pregnancy. The data shows that over 300 million women in the world use contraceptive drugs containing synthetic hormones to avoid an unwanted pregnancy. Their effects may affect other systems, leading to the occurrence of various problems associated with the use of the drug. The aim of the study is to estimate the frequency of prevalence of subjective effects associated with the use of combined hormonal contraception with a predominance of gestagens by young women Surveys were conducted among female students of Wrocław universities from December 2010 to January 2011. They covered 257 women aged statistically 23.58 (SD=2.95). They were divided into three age classes: 19-22, 23-24, 25- 28. The individual age of menarche and the hormonal type of body were determined. Only persons with a gestagenic or estrogenic type of body were qualified for the study. Results: 64.6% of all respondents declared the use of hormonal contraception. Combined agents with a predominance of gestagens constituted 87% in this group. Their use brings both positive (90%) and negative (65%) aspects. The most common positive effects include high contraceptive effectiveness, regulation of menstruation and minimisation of skin problems. The most frequent negative effects include: weight gain, spotting, breast swelling and decreased libido. Surprisingly, the study did not show any correlation between the hormonal type and the occurrence of side effects. There was no significant statistical relationship between the type of hormonal contraception used and the hormonal type.

Volume 81, 2018, Issue 1

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society 


Comparative study of chronic energy deficiency among adult males of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and their counterparts
Ramesh Sahani, Rajesh K. Gautam, Amir H. Golnabi, Neeraj Vedwan

The indigenous islanders of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are representing the earliest form
of developmental stage, their nutritional assessment and anthropometric comparison with contemporary
populations are the main objective of the present paper. In this study we present a cross sectional
analysis of anthropometric data of 2010 individuals of 19 different groups. The data were collected by
the trained anthropologists of Anthropological Survey of India, following standard techniques and ethical
guidelines. It was found that the Indigenous Islanders have small body size as compared to immigrants
and counterparts. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) was found highest among the
mainlanders. Highest prevalence of overweight was found among Great Andamanese (18.2%), followed
by Onge (7.4%). Individuals below 21 years of age were not found to be overweight or obese. On the other
side, 16.7% of individual of age 41+ of local born were found to be overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2).
It can be concluded that the Indigenous people of the Islands are short in stature and nutritionally better
than immigrants. The immigrants are better than their counterparts in the mainland, but still they are not
able to reach at par of the indigenous people in the level of nutrition whereas logarithmic transformation
of data and scaling exponent (β) of weight to height was found ~2 across these populations.

Bone mineral density in healthy Syrian women measured by dual energyX-ray absorptiometry
Mohamed Adel Bakir, Kholoud B Hammad and Khuzama M Habil

Assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
technique is considered as a standard technique for diagnosing osteopenia and osteoporosis and evaluating
the severity of such diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated the necessity to establish an ethnicspecific
reference data for Bone mineral density measurements. Such data are lacking for the Syrian
population. The objectives of this study are (1) to establish BMD reference values in a group of healthy
Syrian women using DXA technique, (2) to compare with values from other populations, (3) to study the
prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Syrian women using the manufacturer reference values. A
total of 951 healthy Syrian women aged 20-79 years participated in this study. Weight, height, and BMI
have been determined. BMD measurements were performed using Lunar Prodigy Advance System (GE).
The data were compared with those from other populations. The results have demonstrated the expected
decline in BMD with age after peaking at 30-39 years old group. The peak values of the lumbar spine
and femur neck were 1.16 (0.12), and 0.95 (0.13) g/cm2, respectively. The results of the Syrian women
were compared with those from other populations and the differences were presented. Osteopenia was
diagnosed in 35.80% and 60.31% and osteoporosis in 6.23% and 2.72% in lumbar spine and femur neck,
respectively, of women 50-59 years of age. These ratios increased to 36.84%, 68.42% and 23.68%, 13.10%,
respectively, in the age group more than 59 years. BMD values of the Syrian women were determined for the
first time. The results demonstrate the importance of establishing population-specific reference range for
BMD values for an accurate assessment of Osteoporosis. High prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis
was demonstrated in Syrian using the manufacturer reference values.

Body dimensions and weight to height indices in rescuers from the State Fire Service of Poland
Andrzej Wiśniewski, Wojciech Jarosz, Anna Czajkowska, Anna Mróz, Marcin Smolarczyk, Andrzej Magiera, Przemysław Kowalczyk, Dagmara Zimmerman-Rysz, Marek Kowalczyk

Few studies have been published in Poland concerning body dimensions of firefighters from
the State Fire Service although this knowledge is needed for e.g. development of personal protective
equipment. The aim of the study was to evaluate body dimensions and weight-to-height ratio in firefighters
from the State Fire Service. Using the anthropological procedures, body mass (BM) and body height (BH)
were examined in 178 men at the chronological age (CA) of 19.5 to 53 years who were rescuers from the
national rescue and fire brigades of the State Fire Service. The study participants were divided into three
categories of CA: up to 25 years, between 24 and 44 years, and over 44 years. The results were compared to
population standards. It was found that BH of the youngest rescuers was significantly higher (0.05) than
in other study participants. Based on the standardized values of BM and BMI, population of firefighters
aged over 25 years was found to be characterized by overweight and, in certain cases, even by obesity. The
excess level of body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kgm2) was found in nearly 60% of study participants, with half
of the group classified as overweight (n=31, BMI ranging from 25 to 29.9 kg/m2), and 10% classified as
obese. Due to the worrying high percentage of cases of excess body mass in firefighters from the State
Fire Service, it was found that it is recommended to evaluate the relationships between body height and
mass on regular basis during periodical obligatory tests of physical fitness of rescuers from the State Fire
Service and to increase the frequency and duration of training sessions.

A comparison of sex identification methods based on lip furrow pattern
Aleksandra Topczydło, Krzysztof Borysławski, Dariusz Nowakowski

The objective of the study was to specify the method with the highest probability of correct
sex identification based on lip furrow pattern. Three methods were verified: Vahanwala’s method,
identification based on the mid-section of lower lip print and our own method. The examined group
included 242 persons aged 15- 30 years, 68.6% females and 31.4% males. Cheilograms were taken with
the method proposed by Vanahwala, modified in such a way that the prints of lower and upper lips were
taken separately. The lip furrow patterns were classified according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi, modified to
include horizontal furrows which were considered by Renaud. In all the quadrants patterns II, III and VI
prevailed among males and patterns I, I’ and II among females. Females were more frequently diagnosed
correctly than males. Our method in which all the lip print was analysed without division into quadrants
was the most effective, while Vahanwala’s method was the least so.

Skeletal evidence of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) in a collective burial from Byzantine Greece
Paraskevi Tritsaroli

The paper reports on a collective burial from a 13th c. AD cist grave in Attica, Greece. The grave
was located inside a basilica and held the remains of at least ten adults. Bone representation analysis
showed secondary manipulation of previous deceased including long bone selection for reburial in the same
grave and/or bones transported from a different burial place. Paleopathological analysis used macroscopy
and radiology, and revealed several lesions on the axial and appendicular skeleton expressed mainly by
spinal ligament ossification and multiple peripheral enthesopathies. Individuation of the remains pointed
to a middle-aged male with DISH, a condition often correlated to high social rank. Byzantine period is
marked by increasing development and prosperity in Greece including among others the creation of many
local monastic centers. Although the precise social and professional profile of these individuals cannot
be revealed, the combined investigation of skeletal and archaeological evidence suggests that the grave
gathered the remains of individuals belonging to an upper class social group.

Anthropological analysis and paleo-demographic study of human skeletal remains from the late ancient necropolis of Biverone (4th-5th c.AD), San Stino Di Livenza (Venice, Italy)
Giulia Gadioli, Cinzia Scaggion, Nicola Carrara

The study of the osteological collections preserved at the Museum of Anthropology – University
of Padua coming from archaeological excavations dated to the end of 19th and 20th century, is a great
opportunity to disseminate still unpublished anthropological data. The aim of this work was the analysis
through modern anthropological methodology of the human skeletal remains brought to light in 1983 at
the necropolis of Biverone, municipality of San Stino di Livenza (Venice, Northeast Italy). The site, close
to Livenza River, began its decadence in the Late Ancient period (4th-5th c. AD) as a result of regional
morphological variations and barbarian invasions, that caused an important local depopulation.
The study focused on the anthropological analysis of 121 skeletal individuals, trying to better understand
the paleodemographic profile, the state of health and the way of life of the ancient population of Biverone.
A preliminary identification of the ancestry was attempted, considering the general lack of information
about the Late Ancient Venetian populations.

Leukocyte count, systemic inflammation, and health status in older adults: a narrative review
Piotr Chmielewski

Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that elevated leukocyte count within the normal
range can predict cardiovascular and total mortality in older adults. These findings are remarkable because
this simple and common laboratory test is included in routine medical check-ups. It is well known
that chronic systemic inflammation (inflammaging) is one of the hallmarks of aging and an important
component of obesity-associated insulin resistance that can lead to type 2 diabetes and other health
problems in both overweight individuals and elderly people. To understand the molecular mechanisms
linking increased systemic inflammation with aging-associated diseases and elevated leukocyte counts
in the elderly is to unravel the multiplicity of molecular factors and mechanisms involved in chronic
low-grade systemic inflammation, the gradual accumulation of random molecular damage, age-related
diseases, and the process of leukopoiesis. There are several possible mechanisms through which chronic
low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with both higher leukocyte count and a greater risk
of aging-associated conditions in older adults. For example, the IL-6 centric model predicts that this
biomediator is involved in chronic systemic inflammation and leukopoiesis, thereby suggesting that
elevated leukocyte count is a signal of poor health in older adults. Alternatively, an increase in neutrophil
and monocyte counts can be a direct cause of cardiovascular events in the elderly. Interestingly, some
authors assert that the predictive ability of elevated leukocyte counts with regard to cardiovascular and allcause
mortality among older adults surpass the predictive value of total cholesterol. This review reports
the recent findings on the links between elevated but normal leukocyte counts and the increased risks
of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. The possible molecular mechanisms linking higher but
normal leukocyte counts with increased risk of aging-associated diseases in the elderly are discussed here.

Postural stability and risk of falls per decade of adult life – a pilot study
Elżbieta Sieńko-Awierianów, Anna Lubkowska, Piotr Kolano, Monika Chudecka

A gradual loss of function in the balance system may begin in the fourth decade of life. The
effects of this process become visible in old age, when problems with postural stability contribute to falls,
making it an important social problem. Early detection of this dysfunction is essential for minimizing the
risk of age-related falls, one of the main causes of hospitalization or even death in older adults.
The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic factors that may result in the deterioration in postural
stability and determine the age range in which the first changes in stability occur. The study included
healthy non-sporting adults aged from 20 to 70 years. Four tests based on the Biodex Balance System were
used to determine static postural stability, dynamic postural stability, risk of falling and stability limits.
The obtained results showed that dysfunctions of dynamic balance appeared significantly earlier than
static balance dysfunctions, i.e. as early as at 50 years of age, and then gradually increased. Higher BMI
and the percentage and absolute fat content significantly increased the risk of falls and also adversely
affected the results of dynamic stability tests.

Volume 80, 2017, Issue 2

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2017 © 2017 Polish Anthropological Society 


Body structure and maturation – the association with environmental factors
Joanna Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Anna Siniarska, Aneta Sikorska, Sławomir Kozieł

The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between physique, maturation and some environmental factors. The study was conducted in Warsaw, between 2012 and 2013 in randomly selected schools. The material included 171 girls, aged 12–20 years. Body height and weight, upper and
lower extremity length, subcutaneous fat folds on arm, subscapular and abdominal, circumferences of arm, chest, waist and hip were measured. Body proportion indices were calculated. The questionnaire form provided information on parental education and profession, and the number of children in family. Girls were asked about age at menarche, number of daily meals, level of physical activity, participation is sport, and level of stress at home and at school. The principal component analysis was applied and 4 factors were extracted from the set of living condition characteristics (F1 – Parental education & father’s occupation, F2 – Mother’s occupation and the number of children, F3 – Stress, F4 – Physical activity and number of daily meals). Regression analysis allowed to evaluate the association of body build characteristics and age at menarche with the four factors. Factor 1 and 4 were the only ones which showed a statistically significant association with body build. The results showed that girls who were taller, with smaller arm and waist circumferences and less adiposity came from families with higher parental education and better father’s profession. Taller stature, longer legs and less adiposity characterized girls who were more physically active and consumed more than three meals a day.

Nutritional status among children and adolescents aged 6–18 years of Kolam tribe of Andhra Pradesh, India K.
K. Bharthi, Manisha Ghritlahre, Subal Das, Kaushik Bose

Malnutrition has become one of the serious problems among children and adolescents internationally, especially in developing countries. India, a developing country covers 40% of undernourished children of the world. In India, tribal population is among the most deprived and undernourished people. The present study shows the prevalence of undernutrition among Kolam tribal children and adolescents by comparing different Body Mass Index (BMI) cut off points. Age and sex specific nutritional status of studied population shows 15.01% boys and 18.35% girls are in Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) III category, 16.22% boys and 19.32% girls are in CEDII, 31.71% boys and 2.72% girls are in CEDI only 0.96% boys and 1.69% girls are in overweight category respectively. Undernutrition is not limited to young children, even adults are also severely underweight in developing countries. Health and nutrition of today’s adolescent girls may have great impact on the quality of next generation. Proper nutritional programs and health policies are needed to be implemented among tribals to solve the problem of undernutrition and similar studies should be planned in other underprivileged sections worldwide.

Analysis of eating behaviors and eating habits, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in association with spirometry results of young adults
Edyta Dzięciołowska-Baran, Maciej Mularczyk, Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka, Kinga Michnik, Ewa Rębacz-Maron

Behavior and eating habits stands as an important factor in terms of maintaining a good health condition in every age group. This involves optimal digestion, maintaining proper metabolism of the entire organism and thus maintaining proper body weight. It is especially important for students, as the increased mental activity results in increased energy expenditure. The state of body weight can affect the respiratory efficiency measured in spirometry. The aim of the study was to assessthe relation between behavior and eating habits, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and results from spirometry tests among young adults.
The study sample included 185 students from the University of Szczecin (mean age 21.2±1.3). Using a questionnaire prepared for the study, information on the eating plan of students for three consecutive days was collected. Dietary analysis was concerned with: eating in stressful situations, dieting, regularity of main meals, eating between main meals. Afterwards spirometry examination was performed along with a detailed measurement of body weight and height, waist and hip circumferences in order to calculate BMI and WHR index of each respondent. The data obtained was processed statistically. Significant correlations between FVC and “dieting” (Spearman’s rs=0.3) were recorded in the group of women. However, the association of other behavior and eating habits with spirometry parameters did reveal null results in both males and females.
Correct behaviors and eating habits at a young age affect spirometry parameters to a negligible extent. The absence of direct health related effects of bad consumption habits at a young age makes it all the more important to raise the awareness of students, that their current decisions will have an apparent effect in the future, maybe only after a few years.

Association between body size and selected hematological parameters in men and women aged 45 and above from a hospitalized population of older adults: an insight from the Polish Longitudinal Study of Aging (1960–2000)
Piotr Chmielewski, Bartłomiej Strzelec, Jolanta Chmielowiec, Krzysztof Chmielowiec, Krzysztof Borysławski

In elderly people, anemia occurs with increasing frequency with each advancing decade and can be a harbinger of very serious health conditions, including gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and cancer. Therefore, age-dependant changes in hematological parameters deserve special attention. Nonetheless, very few longitudinal studies of aging have focused on possible associations between basic anthropometric characteristics and hematological parameters in older people. Here, we present some evidence that body size can be associated with red blood cell count as well as some other selected hematological parameters in adults aged 45 to 70 years. Longitudinal data on anthropometric and hematological parameters have been obtained from physically healthy residents at the Regional Psychiatric Hospital for People with Mental Disorders in Cibórz, Lubuskie Province, Poland (142 individuals, including 68 men and 74 women). The residents who took psychoactive drugs were excluded from the study. To evaluate the studied relationships, three anthropometric traits were used and three dichotomous divisions of the study sample were made. The medians of body height, body weight, and body mass index at the age of 45 years were used to divide the sample into: shorter and taller, lighter and heavier, and slimmer and stouter individuals, respectively. Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation, and regression analysis were employed. The results of the present study suggest that the relationship between body size and red blood cell count is slightly more pronounced in men and its strength depends on age. However, the correlations between body size and red blood cell count proved to be weak in both sexes. With aging, the strength of the relation decreased gradually, which might have been caused by the aging-associated changes in the hematopoietic system, anemia, or was an artifact. Further studies are needed to elucidate the unclear association between body size and hematological parameters in older adults.

Prevalence of obesity, central obesity, and associated socio-demographic variables in Syrian women using different anthropometric indicators
M Adel Bakir, Kholoud Hammad, Loreen Mohammad

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally in both developing and developed countries, especially, those with rapid cultural and social changes. The aims of current study were twofold: (a) to examine, for the first time in Syria, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity in Syrian women and obesity-related socio-demographic determinants, and (b) to establish a base line data about obesity related determinants needed to develop appropriate treatment and prevention strategies. Cross-sectional study with a randomly representative sample of 923 women aged 18–60 years was conducted. Waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Socio-demographic data were collected with a designed questionnaire. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in Syrian women as defined by BMI were 31% and 43%, respectively. The overall central obesity as defined by WC and WHR were 53% and 33%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were increased with age. WC and HC were strongly correlated with BMI. The mean BMIs and other anthropometric measurements were significantly higher in married, house wife, less educated, high parity, and low physical activity women. The results of this study indicate an increased rates of overweight, overall, and central obesity in Syrian women. Also, central obesity as defined by WC is higher than BMI derived obesity. In conclusion, WC is more appropriate to be used for obesity assessment, where, BMI underestimates the obesity prevalence among middle-age women. Development of appropriate treatment and prevention strategies are urgently needed to combat with increasing rate of obesity among Syrian women.

Anthropological analysis of projectile trauma to the bony regions of the trunk
Caitlin Humphrey, Maciej Henneberg

Ballistics literature often focuses on soft tissue injures and projectile trauma to the cranium. Minimal details on the bony characteristics of projectile trauma to the thorax/abdomen regions have been published. This study aims to analyse projectile trauma to the bony trunk region including the ribs, vertebrae, scapula, sternum and the hip bone to form a better understanding of the characteristics and biomechanics of skeletal trauma caused by a projectile and contribute to the existing database on skeletal trauma caused by projectiles. Fourteen cases of documented projectile trauma to the bony regions of the trunk from the Hamman-Todd Human Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Natural History Museum, Ohio were analysed. Of the 14 individuals with gunshot wounds examined, 40 wounds occurred to the bones.Twenty- four injuries to the ribs, 1 ilium, 11 vertebrae, 3 scapulae, and 1 sternum. Fracture patterns, heaving and bevelling can be used to determine the direction of travel of the projectile which can be evident on the ribs, sternum, scapula and ilium. It is critical to understand the wounding patterns associated with projectile trauma to the torso region as this is often targeted, due to being the centre of mass.

Evidence of tuberculosis among children in medieval (13th–15th century) Wrocław: A case study of hip joint tuberculosis in a juvenile skeleton excavated from the crypt of the St. Elizabeth church
Agata Izabela Cieślik

Paleopathological examinations of the skeletal remains of people who died centuries ago are material source of knowledge about health and diseases in the past. In this article, a case of skeletal tuberculosis from historical (13th–15th c.) Wrocław, Poland has been presented. The juvenile skeleton excavated from grave No 93, from the crypt located under the church of St. Elizabeth, displayed pathological lesions within the right hip joint resulting from a chronic inflammation, which might have been assigned to signs typical for skeletal tuberculosis. The results of macroscopic and radiological analyses appeared to be consistent, and allowed to determine a reliable diagnosis of this paleopathological case.

Study of skin of an Egyptian mummy using a scanning electron microscope
Hanna Mańkowska-Pliszka, Halina Przychodzeń, Michał Nawrot, Sylwia Tarka, Piotr Wasylczyk, Agnieszka Dąbkowska, Marcin Fudalej, Ewa Rzeźnicka, Dagmara Haładaj, Aleksandra Pliszka

The first study of modified human remains using an electron microscope was carried out at the end of the 1950 and in 1979 the first result of the study involving a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was published for the first time. The study was mainly focused on the structure of tissues and cells. With the help of this technique cell and tissue elements, viruses and bacterial endospores as well as the structure of epithelium and the collagen contents of dermis were identified and described. In the above-mentioned case the object of the study using a SEM was a free part of the right hand (forearm with the dorsal and palmar parts of hand) of unknown origin, with signs of mummification revealed during microscopic analysis. Our study was aimed at finding the answer to the question if the mummification of the studied limb was natural or intentional, and if the study using a SEM could link the anonymous remains with ancient Egypt.

Volume 80, 2017, Issue 1

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773



Anthropol Rev 2017 © 2017 Polish Anthropological Society 


Growth and health status of children and adolescents in medieval Central Europe
Marta Krenz-Niedbała

Subadult growth and health have been analyzed in three cemetery samples from medieval Poland, including two early-urban sites: Cedynia dated to the 10th–14th centuries AD, and Ostrów Lednicki dated to the 13th–15th centuries AD, and a rural site Słaboszewo dated to the 14th–17th centuries AD. The nutritional status was not expected to have substantially differed among the settlements, due to the culturally induced undiversified diet of children, and predominant share of medium-to-low status individuals. However, city life and village life were supposed to differ in factors correlated with the spread of infections, and as such it was expected to find significant differences in respiratory health among early-urban and rural dwellers.The prevalences of diet-dependent diseases, scurvy and rickets, were found to be statistically indistinguishable among the three studied populations, while higher frequency of skeletal signs of poor respiratory health was observed in early-urban Cedynia than rural Słaboszewo. Slightly lower prevalences of skeletal stress indicators were found for the rural than the early-urban site. Skeletal growth profiles and the dynamics of long bone growth were found to be remarkably similar for the early-urban samples (Cedynia and Ostrów Lednicki), with the rural subadults having the shortest diaphyseal lengths, and lower growth dynamics.It can be concluded that adverse factors associated with the urban settlement were more detrimental to respiratory health than those in the village. A variety of factors are potentially responsible for this pattern, including population density, building structure, quality of air and water, sanitation, and occupation. Perhaps, the key factor in response to environmental and socio-cultural constraints was the stability of living conditions in the village, which allowed the inhabitants to develop sufficient adaptive mechanisms. In contrast, the history of strongholds such as Cedynia was changeable due to political situation, military threats and migrations of people.

Estimating age at death from an archaeological bone sample – a preliminary study based on comparison of histomorphometric methods
Barbara Mnich, Janusz Skrzat, Krzysztof Szostek

The estimation of age at death is one of the most fundamental biological parameters, determined on skeletal remains in anthropological context. That is why, there is a constant need to improve applied methods. Histomorphometry, which uses microscopic analysis of bone tissue is suggested to be one alternative method. In general, this technique is based on measurements and the determination of the number and density of basic bone structural units, osteons. Osteon density is found to be related with age of the individual. The main goal of this research was to compare results of determined age at death, on the basis of ribs histology, comes from methods proposed by different authors. We analyzed ground cross sections of ribs from archeological origin. The presented methodology is simple in use and effective. Four different methods were tested (Stout and Paine 1992; Cho et al. 2002; Kim et al. 2007; Bednarek et al. 2009). The obtained age results were compared with each other as well as related to the age estimated by standard macroscopic method used in anthropology. Bednarek’s method is recognized to be the most supportive for anthropological analyzes. Methodological issues connected with grinding methodology and results interpretation are also presented. Hypothesis about interpopulation as well as histological and dimorphic differences were confirmed.

Oxygen stable isotopes variation in water precipitation in Poland – anthropological applications
Aleksandra Lisowska-Gaczorek, Beata Cienkosz-Stepańczak, Krzysztof Szostek

The main objective of oxygen isotope analysis is to determine the probable place of origin of an individual or the reconstruction of migration paths. The research are methodologically based on referencing oxygen isotope ratios of apatite phosphates (δ18Op) to the range of environmental background δ18O, most frequently determined on the basis of precipitation.
The present work is a response to the need for providing background for oxygen isotope studies on skeletons excavated in Poland. Currently there no monitoring of the isotope composition of precipitation water in Poland is conducted. For this reason, based on the data generated in the Online Isotopes In Precipitation Calculator (OIPC), a database was developed, containing δ18O levels in precipitation for locations in which exploration work was carried out in the archaeological fields from Poland. In total, 279 locations were analysed. The result of the data analysis was a complete isotope composition map for Poland with four zones distinguished by δ18Ow values.
The observable differences in oxygen isotope composition of precipitation in Poland are sufficient to trace migrations of individuals and populations, although accurate only at the level of macroregions.

Exploring the association between body mass index and dental caries in 3–7-year-old children, living in Łódź, Poland
Agnieszka Bruzda-Zwiech, Beata Borowska Strugińska, Renata Filipińska,Elżbieta Żądzińska, Beata Lubowiedzka-Gontarek, Beata Szydłowska-Walendowska, Magdalena Wochna-Sobańska

Dental caries and childhood obesity are major problems affecting the health of children and preventing these conditions in children have been recognized as public health priorities (Hong et al. 2008; Odgien et al. 2010). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between age-specific body mass index (BMI-for age) and dental caries in 3- to 7-year-olds. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 729 children from randomly chosen kindergartens and elementary schools in the urban area of Lodz, Poland. Anthropometric measurements were taken and the BMI-for-age was calculated for each child. Dental examinations were performed according to the WHO criteria. The sum of decayed, missing, filled primary/permanent teeth and surfaces – dmft/DMFT and dmft/DMFTS, and caries prevalence were computed. The percentage distribution of the BMI categories in the study group was: 72.7% normal weight, 8.92% underweight, 12.89% overweight and 5.49% obese. Caries prevalence in the primary dentition was significantly lower in underweight children than in those who were of normal weight (p=0.004) or were overweight (p=0.039). However, controlling for age and gender, no significant association was noted between BMI and caries prevalence in either dentition group. The Kruskal-Wallis test failed to reveal any significant differences in mean dmft across the four BMI groups in the whole population, nor within particular age groups, nor in DMFT in 5- to 7-year-olds. There was no association between BMI and dental caries either in the primary dentition or permanent teeth in the early period after eruption.

Use of upper arm anthropometry, upper arm muscle area-by-height (UAMAH) and midupper-arm-circumference (MUAC)-for-height as indicators of body composition and nutritional status among children
Sampriti Debnath, Nitish Mondal, Jaydip Sen

Upper arm anthropometry has a potential role to provide useful estimations of body composition and nutritional status. Aims of the present cross-sectional study were to assess body composition and nutritional status of rural school-going children using upper arm anthropometric measures such as upper
arm muscle area-by-height (UAMAH) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for-height. The present
cross-sectional study was conducted among 1281 children of West Bengal, India (boys 619, girls 662) aged 5–12 years and selected using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height, weight, MUAC and triceps skinfold (TSF) were recorded. Body composition and nutritional status were assessed using upper arm muscle area (UMA), upper arm fat area (UFA), UAMAH and MUAC-forheight. Age-sex-specific overall adiposity in TSF, UFA, arm fat index and upper-arm fat area estimates were higher among girls than boys (p<0.01), but UMA and upper-arm muscle area estimates were observed to be higher among boys than girls (p<0.05). High prevalence of undernutrition was found among both boys (53.15%) and girls (41.69%) using UAMAH (p<0.01). The overall prevalence of low MUAC-forheight was higher among boys (28.59%) than girls (25.68%) (p>0.05). Upper arm anthropometric measures, UAMAH and MUAC-for-height are useful for assessment of body composition and nutritional status among children.

Relationship between body fat percentage determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis and metabolic risk factors in Syrian male adolescents (18–19 years)
Mahfouz Al-Bachir, Mohamad Adel Bakir

The association between increasing obesity and metabolic syndrome among adolescent and the adverse consequences in adulthood including type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease is well documented. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the major metabolic risk factors and some clinical important parameters in Syrian male adolescents (18–19 years old), and to assess the correlations between BF% determined by BIA-man prediction equation and metabolic risk factors in the same group. The correlations between body fat percentage (BF%) based on BIA-man predictive equations, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), cholesterol (Chol), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), Hematocrit (Ht), and hemoglobin (Hb) in 1596 healthy Syrian adolescents aged 18–19 years and the mean values of these parameters were examined. Data showed that, DBP, Chol, TG, LDL and TG/HDL-C were significantly (p<0.05) higher in overweight and obese subjects in compression to normal weight cases. Whereas, SBP, FBS and Ht were significantly (p<0.05) higher in obese subjects in compression to normal weight. However, all measured variable related to metabolic syndrome risk factors increased with increasing the BF% determined by BIA-man. The present study suggests that % BF by BIA-man is a good predictor of metabolic risks factors for Syrian adolescents.

Body mass index, general fatness, lipid profile and bone mineral density in young women and men
Anna Kopiczko, Karol Gryko

The bone tissue is metabolically active. Throughout the entire life, it undergoes changes in the form of bone resorption processes which are successive, with the participation of the resorbing cells and bone formation processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate mineral density and bone mass tissue and the lipid profile, BMI, total body fat in young females and males. The study involved 100 people (50 females and 50 males) studying in Warsaw at the age of 23,2 ± 4,0 years. The densitometry method of the forearm was used for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass (BMC). The method of bioelectrical impedance was used for the assessment of body components. Basic body dimensions and indicators were assessed using anthropometric measurements. Body height, body mass and the needs for the densitometry study of the forearm were measured. The total cholesterol concentration was determined in the blood serum using diagnostic kits, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and triglycerides. The concentration of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) was calculated. While in men the occurrence of a significant, positive correlation was stated between the concentration of the HDL cholesterol fraction and the mineral density and T-score index in the ultra-distal point, the analysis of the compounds of mineral density (BMD), bone mass (BMC) of the forearm, T-score index with somatic features in women showed a significant, positive relation between the body weight and the bone mass mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. Also, a significant weak, positive correlation was observed between the BMI, the mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. In men, the occurrence of significant, positive correlations was stated between the body weight and BMC, BMD, T-score indicator in the proximal point of the forearm bone and ultra-distal point. Similar relations were observed between the BMI, mineral density, T-score and bone mass in the proximal point and in the ultra-distal point. Based on several noted weak, positive correlations between the lipid profile and BMD, the results of this study of women and men cannot unequivocally indicate the dependence of the bone tissue state on the lipid level in the blood serum of young women and men. Therefore, the issues raised require further investigation.

Intergenerational relations and child development in England
Antti O. Tanskanen

Evolutionary studies have shown that in many traditional populations the beneficial effects of grandparental presence for grandchildren may vary according to the sex and lineage of the grandparents, as well as by the sex of the grandchild. However, few studies have investigated the relevance of these factors in modern developed societies. The present investigation uses the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 4,636 children) to analyse the association between grandparental investment and child development in contemporary England. Grandparental investment is measured by parent-grandparent contact frequencies at the child’s age of 3 and child development by “early learning goals” over the first year of primary school assessed with the Foundation Stage Profile (FSP). Children whose mothers reported contacts with maternal grandparents receive higher FSP scores compared to those with no contact at all. In addition, children whose fathers reported daily contacts with paternal grandfathers have lower FSP scores than other children. The study provides evidence of the relevance of grandparental investment on grandchild development also in developed societies. The results are discussed with reference to the grandmother hypothesis, sex-specific reproductive strategies and sex chromosome hypothesis.