Archival Issues
  Versita Archival issues are available through the Adam Mickiewicz University
Repository (AMUR) at





Volume 79, 2016, Issue 4


Obituary: Professor Jan Strzałko (1943–2016)
Katarzyna A. Kaszycka

Understanding the links between month of birth, body height, and longevity: why some studies reveal that shorter people live longer – further evidence of seasonal programming from the Polish population
Piotr Chmielewski, Krzysztof Borysławski

There is a lack of agreement in the literature as to whether adult height depends on month of birth and whether height affects lifespan. Additionally, the relationship between stature and longevity involves conflicting findings and the results remain mixed due to several confounders, such as: year of birth, somatotype, relative body weight, genetic inheritance, diet, diseases, etc. Here, we hypothesize that the season of birth effect can also be involved in shaping the mysterious link between body height and longevity. To assess the links between month of birth, adult height, and longevity in the Polish population, data on 848,860 individuals, of whom 483,512 were men (57%) and 365,348 were women (43%), born in the years 1896–1988 and died in the years 2004–2008, were collected from the ‘PESEL’ database and signalments in the censuses obtained from identity card offices throughout Poland. ANOVA and the LSD test were performed. A significant relationship between month of birth and lifespan was found. Individuals born in autumn and winter months lived significantly longer than those who were born in the middle of the year (May). The amplitudes of lifespan were 16 months in men and 14 months in women. As expected, subjects of both sexes born in autumn and winter months were significantly shorter than their peers born around the middle of the year. In conclusion, the results of the study not only corroborate the theory of seasonal programming of longevity and support the idea that some undetermined factors from early stages of ontogeny and associated with season of birth have long-term effects on phenotype in later life in terms of adult height and longevity, but also bear out the hypothesis that month of birth can be another important confounding factor with respect to the relationship between adult height and longevity.

The association between social factors and body length proportions in Polish schoolchildren from Lower Silesia
Sławomir Kozieł, Aleksandra Gomula, Natalia Nowak-Szczepańska

Many studies worldwide have shown that social factors are significantly associated with growth in childhood. However, very few researchers studied influence of social factors on body length proportions. The aim of the present study was the assessment how urbanization level, sibship size and parental education may affect body length proportions in schoolchildren. 325 boys and 335 girls aged 7–18 years were measured in schools in Wrocław, two small towns and villages around these towns. Height, sitting height, leg length , and lower leg length were measured in all children, then relative lengths (in relation to height) were calculated: leg, femur, lower leg, estimated leg and lower leg length to leg length ratio. Height was standardized on age using LMS parameters for CDC 2002 year cohort. Other indices were standardized on age by using residuals variance derived from linear regressions. Four-way analysis of variance was used for height and each index, where independent variables were four social factors. Except for father’s education in boys, no other social factor was significant associated with height. Urbanization level significantly differed almost all indices, whereas father’s education level was significantly associated with relative leg length in girls and estimated leg length in both sexes. Our study has shown that the segments of lower limb seems to be more sensitive than height to the effect of social factors. In Lower Silesia, the level of urbanization is still related to differences in environmental conditions, enough to significantly affect growth of children, especially within the segments of lower limbs.

Socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of Assam, North-east India
Melody Seb Rengma, Kaushik Bose, Nitish Mondal

The prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) is a key indicator of long-term chronic undernutrition which reflects an anthropometric failure to reach linear growth potentials due to prolonged food deprivation and/or disease or illness during the early stage of life. The present study assesses the prevalence and socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of the North-east India. This cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1,818 (830 boys; 988 girls) adolescents (aged 10–18 years) belonging to ethnically heterogeneous populations of Karbi Anglong district of Assam, using stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were recorded using standard procedures. Socio-economic and demographic variables were obtained using pre-structured schedule. The age-sex specific L, M and S reference values were used to calculate height-for-age Z-score (HAZ). According to WHO, HAZ found to be <−2SD was classified as stunting. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, chi-square analyses, binary and step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis in SPSS (version, 17.0). The prevalence of stunting was observed to be significantly higher among boys (48.4%) than girls (37.8%) (p<0.01). Age-sex specific prevalence was found to be higher among boys than girls aged 14–18 years and contrary were observed among girls aged 10–14 years (p>0.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that several socio-economic and demographic variables were significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05). The step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that sex (boys), age groups (13–15 years and 16–18 years), father’s occupation (cultivator) and Rupees ≤5000 household income was significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05). Appropriate nutritional intervention programmes and dissemination of knowledge at population level related to undernutrition are necessary to ameliorate their nutritional status.

Development of relative body mass (BMI) of students from Łódź, depending on the selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors
Paulina Pruszkowska-Przybylska, Katarzyna Skowyra, Piotr Sękowski

The human height-to-weight ratio is an important parameter of the body homeostasis. Currently, the most popular measurement determining the relationship between body mass and height is the Quetelet
II indicator, called Body Mass Index (BMI). The aim of this study is an evaluation of the differences in the height-to-weight ratios, depending on selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors in people studying at higher education institutions in Łódź. The research was conducted among students of higher education institutions in Łódź, by electronic means or with the use of an anonymous survey. It consisted of 28 closed single or multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis was made of complete results of the research involving 135 people, both males and females, aged between 19–26. It was revealed that the factors related to higher BMI values in students are the following: the presence of a tendency in the students to gain weight themselves, and a tendency to gain weight present in their mothers, an evaluation of their own body mass as excessive, regularly smoking cigarettes and rarely undergoing medical check-ups. Among the factors connected with lower BMI values are: regular coffee consumption, perception of their own body mass as being too low, and also obtaining systolic pressure values below 110 mm Hg. Additionally, a positive correlation between taking up physical activity and higher values of systolic blood pressure (p<0.05) was shown. Among the subjects, it was found that 92% of the underweight women declared that their body mass and figure were normal. In the case of women with optimal BMI values, 40% stated that their body mass was excessive. In the case of men the problem was reverse: 50% of the subjects who were either overweight or obese claimed that their body mass was within the norm. The factors that significantly influence body proportion differences among students include the subject’s and the subject’s mother’s tendency to put on weight, self-evaluation of their own body mass, the values of systolic blood pressure, coffee consumption and cigarette smoking, as well as the frequency of medical check-ups.

The relationship between adult stature and longevity: tall men are unlikely to outlive their short peers – evidence from a study of all adult deaths in Poland in the years 2004–2008
Piotr Chmielewski

Early epidemiological studies demonstrated that short stature is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, lower energy intake or food deprivation during growth, poor health, and increased all-cause mortality. Nevertheless, the links between adult height and longevity become tenuous if certain confounders (e.g. BMI, SES, educational attainment, etc.) are allowed for. Furthermore, numerous studies have found that like excess weight, tallness is costly in terms of longevity in late ontogeny, and shorter people tend to outlive their taller peers, especially if they are slim and maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle. Therefore, there is currently a lack of agreement in the literature as to whether and how body height and lifespan are linked. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between adult stature and longevity on the basis of a large sample from a population-based cohort study. Data on declared height and exact dates of birth and death were available from 480,493 men and 364,666 women who died in the years 2004–2008 in Poland. To control for secular changes, the sample was divided into fifteen birth cohorts and each group was subsequently split into five height categories using pentiles, separately for both sexes. The analysis has revealed an inverse relationship between height and lifespan in men and women. However, after controlling for secular changes in height, the relationship turned out to be very weak and linear in men, and inverted U-shaped in women. In general, taller individuals had lower age at death compared to shorter ones, and this relationship was more pronounced and consistent in men. To sum up, these findings do not comport with the traditional belief that taller individuals live longer. The role of several possible biological mechanisms pertinent to enhanced longevity in smaller individuals was emphasized, and these biological factors were discussed.

Somatotype and body composition of volleyball players and untrained female students – reference group for comparison in sport
Anna Pastuszak, Krzysztof Buśko, Ewa Kalka

There is substantial evidence that somatotype and success in sport and physical performance are positively related. Existing somatotype data on athletes are useful as guidelines for sport selection and choice of training appropriate to the enhancement of desired somatotype characteristics. Updated somatotype data from non-athlete reference groups complement comparative analysis applied in assessing the effects of the training process and selection. The aim of this study was to determine the somatotype of untrained girls studying at Warsaw University of Technology in 2011, in order to create a current reference group for comparison, and to investigate the difference in body build of female volleyball players compared with the non-athlete group. Twelve Second Division female volleyball players (age 21.6±1.5 years, body height 177.3±6.2 cm, body mass 71.0±6.5 kg, training experience 8.4±3.4 years) and 150 female untrained students of the University of Technology in Warsaw (age 20.0±6.4 years, body height 166.5±6.4 cm, body mass 59.7±8.4 kg) participated in a study carried out in 2011. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. The volleyball players were a little older and were significantly taller and heavier than female students (p<0.05). Significant differences between the groups were found in breadth of the elbow, breadth of the wrist, biacromial diameter, arm circumference and crus circumference (p<0.05). The mean somatotype of the volleyball players was 4.5-3.4-2.8. (4.5±1.0–3.4±1.2–2.8±1.3), whilst that of the untrained students was 5.1–3.6–2.8. (5.1±1.4–3.6±1.1–2.8±1.3); the groups did not differ significantly in somatotype. The groups were significantly different in body composition (F [kg] and LBM [kg]), as estimated by BIA and anthropometric methods (p<0.05). No differences were observed between the groups in the skinfolds. Morphological characteristics of the female volleyball players depended on the competition level and performance. Somatic features of the bodies of the volleyball players were dominated by the height of the body and the associated magnitude of the constituent characteristics.

A case of Avar period trepanation from Croatia
Zrinka Premužić, Petra Rajić Šikanjić, Anita Rapan Papeša

The Avar period cemetery of Nuštar, situated in continental Croatia, is dated to the 8th and the beginning of the 9th century. Rescue archaeological excavation yielded 196 burials. During analysis of human skeletal remains, an individual with a large cranial lesion caused by trepanation was found. Trepanation is a surgical procedure performed on the skull in order to remove a fragment of the bone using a sharp instrument or drill. It has been practiced in various regions since the prehistoric period for both medical and ritual reasons. The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the observed lesion based on macroscopic appearance accompanied by radiography, computed tomography scanning and 3D optical scanning. Furthermore, possible cause and employed technique are taken into consideration, as well as cultural and historical implications of the case.

Volume 79, 2016, Issue 3


Differentiation of root canal morphology – a review of the literature
Agata Przesmycka, Jacek Tomczyk

The morphological diversity of the inner anatomy of root canals in human permanent teeth is an issue mainly described in endodontics research. In recent years, it is a relatively new point in anthropological studies because it varies by sex, geographic and ethnic circumstances. An unusual number of root canals or their specific systems can differentiate populations around the world. The multiplicity of available methods for detecting root canal systems helps to better understand their complexity; however, most cannot be applied to anthropology due to limitations that occur in the bioarcheological material. Thorough knowledge of the heterogeneity and internal anatomy of the root canals supplies numerous classification systems proposed and improved over the years by many authors. A limited number of studies in the anthropological literature and future research will shed light onto the internal tooth morphology in historical populations. The aim of this paper is to describe various classification systems of root canals applied in endodontics. However, due to the often poor state of preservation and damage of archaeological derived remains, it seems that the best method is the approach that is the simplest and least complicated.

Hemoglobin E in Northeast India: A review on its origin, distribution, migration and health implication
Mithun Sikdar

A systematic review of the studies on hemoglobin E in Northeast India has been carried out to understand the magnitude of research undertaken on this aspect during the last seven decades. Owing to the high prevalence of hemoglobin E in this part of India different authors have studied this hemoglobin from different perspectives and found conflicting results. However a systematic review of such studies is lacking from a holistic point of view. Most of the epidemiological, in vitro as well as in vivo studies show signatures of selection with this hemoglobin locus. However, how this polymorphism is maintained at different rates at different geographical region is still a matter of contention. This review will fill the gap from all perspectives starting from the frequency distribution of hemoglobin E and its spread in different parts of Northeast India, its relationship with malaria hypothesis, the population migration, population affinity and most importantly the health implication arising out of it. A probable origin of hemoglobin E among an Austroasiatic population of Northeast India has been postulated with the help of advance molecular anthropological knowledge like the deep rooted markers of mt DNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes.

When maize is not the first choice: advances in paleodietary studies in the Archaeological Site Río Doncellas (Jujuy, Argentina)
Violeta A. Killian Galván, Celeste T. Samec, Héctor O. Panarello

In this work we present new values of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13Cco and δ13Cap) and nitrogen (δ15N) measured in a sample of 13 human individuals found in the Río Doncellas Archaeological Site (Late Period or Regional Developments, ca. 1000 AD–1450 AD) located in the Puna of Jujuy, Northwest of Argentina. The skeletal series belong to the collection of Museo E. Casanova, FFyL – UBA and the Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, being the result of investigations carried out during the decades of 1940 and 1970, respectively. In addition, in this work we present isotopic compositions of food resources (vegetal and fauna) found in the archaeological record as well as gathered in modern farms located in the study area (Abra Pampa, Cochinoca, Jujuy). This information was used for paleodietary inference, allowing us to establish a hierarchy of the resources that were consumed. The results indicate that maize (Zea mays) is less important than other vegetal resources in the diet, which contradicts the expectations generated from the macrobotanical evidence of the site and the cultivated terraces that surround it. On the other hand, camelids seemed to be widely exploited, which is coherent with the current importance of meat production within the region. These results allow us to assert that the growth of cereals did not have a progressive relevance over other resources.

Social distances decrease of body height and the maturation rate of Polish girls in urban and rural population in the period 1967–2009
Teresa Łaska-Mierzejewska, Janusz Dobosz, Sylwia Nowacka-Dobosz, Elżbieta Olszewska, Adam Wilczewski

The aim of the study is to present social distances in biological development of youth in the period of changes in economic and political situation in Poland.
Material and methods: 1. Nationwide study of children and adolescents aged 7.5 to 19.5 years started in 1979 and repeated every decade till 2009, 2. Survey conducted in the region of eastern Poland in 1987 and 2007, 3. Study of rural girls repeated four times between 1967 and 2001. The differences in body height and age at menarche between the inhabitants of towns and rural areas, as well as the differences between rural girls determined by diversified source of income for the family, will be presented. The age at menarche (AM) in each study was calculated using probit method. A monotonic decrease in body height differences between the inhabitants of towns, and girls living in rural areas was observed. On the basis of nationwide studies arithmetic means of the differences in terms of age were 1.9 cm in 1979 and 0.82 in 2009. At the same time, differences in the AM among girls in compared agglomerations decreased from 0.36 to 0.26, respectively. In eastern region of Poland the difference in body height between the residents of towns and villages in 1987 was 1.76 cm, and in 2007, only 0.38 cm; the difference of AM decreased from 0.41 to 0.14 years.
The research conducted on inhabitants of rural areas has shown the earliest maturation and slightly greater body height for girls from landless families and the latest maturation and the smallest body height for the daughters of farmers. The differences in AM between the two groups decreased from 0.53 years in 1967 to 0.15 in 2001.
The political transformation (1989) unequally influenced people on different levels of urbanization, different socio-professional groups and residents of various regions of the country, but was reflected in the results of anthropological research.
The largest social advancement measured in terms of acceleration of maturation in the period covered by the research was characteristic for rural girls, especially the daughters of farmers.

Secular trends in body weight and length of children aged 0–2 years. Longitudinal study of five consecutive birth cohorts between 1964–2003 from Wrocław, Poland
Krzysztof Borysławski, Sławomir Kozieł

The aim of this work is to evaluate the intensity of possible secular trends among the five subsequent cohorts of Wrocław (Poland) children aged 0, 6, 12 and 24 months. This document describes secular changes in the body length, weight and the Rohrer`s index.
Material: Research material represent the longitudinal studies of five consecutive birth cohorts. The first
study involved children born during 1963–1965, and the last in 2003–2005. All of the studies were related to the same social group and were conducted using the same methodology.
There are differences in the intensity and direction of the secular trends in children depending on their age. In both sexes the body length of newborns kept increasing until the end of the nineties and decreased in the last decade. The body weight did not change during the 40-year period. This suggests an important role of maternal regulator in fetal development and therefore no clear response to external environmental factors. Secular changes such as the body length and weight, which are the most adequate to the economic changes in Poland, were observed in children aged 6 and 12 months. It may be a result of their highest ecosensitivity during this period. However, there have not been any clear trends observed in the 24 months age group. This may be due to the increasing participation of genetic factors in the development of the child.

Short term secular change in body size and physical fitness of youth 7–15 years in Southwestern Poland: 2001–2002 and 2010–2011
Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławińska, Robert M. Malina

Short term secular change in body size and physical fitness of Polish youth 7–15 years of age resident in an industrial region of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland was considered across two surveys, 2001–2002 and 2010–2011. Subjects were students in the same schools in both surveys 1892 boys and
1992 girls in the first and 1237 boys and 1236 girls in the second. In addition to height and weight, performances in six fitness tests were measured in each survey. Height, weight and BMI increased significantly across surveys. Statistically controlling for secular gains in height and weight, only static strength (hand grip) and running speed – agility (shuttle run) improved significantly between surveys in three age groups (7–9, 10–12, 13–15 years), while explosive power (standing long jump) showed negligible changes except in girls 13–15 years among whom performances declined significantly. Speed of upper limb movement (plate tapping), flexibility (sit and reach) and trunk strength (sit-ups) declined between surveys, except for trunk strength in boys 13-15 years which did not change. In conclusion, after statistically controlling for secular gains in body size, physical fitness items changed variably over the decade.

Effects of aging on the function of the urinary system: longitudinal changes with age in selected urine parameters in a hospitalized population of older adults
Piotr Chmielewski, Bartłomiej Strzelec, Krzysztof Borysławski, Krzysztof Chmielowiec, Jolanta Chmielowiec, Paweł Dąbrowski

Although normal aging does not have a pernicious effect on the homeostasis of fluids, renal reserve in elderly people can be depleted. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between longitudinal changes with age in basic urine parameters (specific gravity and pH) in older men and women, depending on their body height and relative body weight. Longitudinal data on these two quantitative traits of the urine were available for 142 physically healthy individuals, including 68 men and 74 women. All subjects were 45 years of age at the beginning and 70 at the end of the period under investigation. All measurements were taken in accordance with internationally accepted requirements. Specific gravity was assessed using a hydrometer, and pH was measured using a pH meter. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were performed. No significant sex differences in specific gravity or urine pH were observed. In both sexes, urine specific gravity decreased with age according to exponential model of regression. In men, there was a gradual increase in the pH of the urine until age 65, and the best fitting regression model was polynomial. In women, on the other hand, there was an exiguous decrease in urine pH throughout the period under study, and the best fitting regression model proved to be exponential. As the process of renal aging commences relatively early in ontogeny and manifests itself in many structural and functional changes, urinalysis and other more sophisticated methods of diagnosis of renal diseases are essential for proper assessment of health status of adults and older individuals. The rate of age-related changes in the analyzed traits of the urine was commensurate in both sexes, thereby revealing no evidence of significant sex differences in terms of renal aging in the period between 45 and 70 years of age.

Neck circumference as a screening measure of overweight/obesity among Indian adults
Nitish Mondal, Jaydip Sen, Kaushik Bose, Ruplin Timungpi, Moniram Kathar, Sarlongki Hanse

Neck circumference (NC) is an anthropometric measurement of differentiating body fat distributions and a marker of upper subcutaneous adiposity. The present study highlights the association and importance of NC as a suitable proxy screening measure of overweight/obesity as compared to the conventional anthropometric variables used among Indian adults. The present community based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1169 Karbi adults (males: 625; females: 544) residing in Karbi Anglong district of Assam, Northeast India, who were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling method. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and NC were recorded using standard procedures. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and prevalence of overweight/obesity was assessed using standard cut-offs. The prevalence of obesity using BMI (≥25.00 kg m–2) was 15.52% and 15.26% among males and females, respectively (p≥0.05).The prevalence of obesity using NC was observed to be significantly higher among males (48.80%) than females (19.12%) (p<0.01). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that NC predicted obesity over the conventional anthropometric variables with reasonable accuracy (p<0.01). The ROC-AUC analysis showed a relatively greater significant association between BMI, WC and HC and NC for obesity (p<0.01). Thus, NC appears to be a potentially simple, easyto-use screening measure for predicting obesity among adults. Further studies are required to validate its use for screening of obesity among other ethnic populations in India.

A Modern Environments and Human Health. Revisiting the second epidemiologic transition
Elżbieta Żądzińska

Molly Zuckerman (ed.). 2014. Modern Environments and Human Health. Revisiting the second epidemiologic transition. Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, 401 pp. ISBN: 978-1-118-50420-8.

Volume 79, 2016, Issue 2


90 years of the Polish Anthropological Society and Anthropological Review: a success story
Maria Kaczmarek

Contemporary views on human aging and longevity
Piotr Chmielewski, Krzysztof Borysławski, Bartłomiej Strzelec

Aging is currently stimulating intense interest of both researchers and the general public. In developed countries, the average life expectancy has increased by roughly 30 years within the last century, and human senescence has been delayed by around a decade. Although aging is arguably the most familiar aspect of human biology, its proximate and ultimate causes have not been elucidated fully and understood yet. Nowadays there are two main approaches to the ultimate causes of aging. These are deterministic and stochastic models. The proximate theories constitute a distinct group of explanations. They focus on mechanistic causes of aging. In this view, there is no reason to believe that there is only one biological mechanism responsible for aging. The aging process is highly complex and results from an accumulation of random molecular damage. Currently, the disposable soma theory (DST), proposed by Thomas Kirkwood, is the most influential and coherent line of reasoning in biogerontology. This model does not postulate any particular mechanism underpinning somatic defense. Therefore, it is compatible with various models, including mechanistic and evolutionary explanations. Recently, however, an interesting theory of hyperfunction of mTOR as a more direct cause of aging has been formulated by Mikhail Blagosklonny, offering an entirely different approach to numerous problems and paradoxes in current biogerontology. In this view, aging is quasi-programmed, which means that it is an aimless continuation of developmental growth. This mTOR-centric model allows the prediction of completely new relationships. The aim of this article is to present and compare the views of both parties in the dispute, based on the results of some recent experimental studies, and the contemporary knowledge of selected major aspects of human aging and longevity.

The relationship between latitudinal light variation and orbit and cranial size in humans
Alice Short

Increased orbit size is suggested to be an adaptation for enhanced visual acuity and sensitivity in conditions of reduced light quality. Whilst light ambience has a well established correlation with eye size in birds and primates, evidence in humans is very limited. The aim of this study was to analyse the anatomical compensations of the eye and visual cortex as a result of varying levels of light exposure. It was hypothesized that humans of higher latitudes will have an increased orbit size to improve visual sensitivity and acuity in conditions of decreased light, and thus greater cranium size due to enlarged visual cortices. Craniometric measurements of 1,209 male and 1,021 female individuals from 27 series coming from different latitudes were sourced from William W. Howells Craniometric Data Set. Mean cranial and orbit size was calculated by combining linear craniometric measurements of length, width and height for individual males and females at each latitude. Linear regressions of orbit and cranial size on latitude were created and significance was measured using Pearson’s r and P value. Partial correlations were calculated to test whether orbit size correlates with latitude independent of cranial size. Significant positive correlations were found between i) orbit and cranial size and ii) orbit size and latitude and iii) cranial size and latitude in males and females. Additionally, partial correlation values for latitude and orbit size were significant in both males and females. The relationship between visual system size and increasing latitude among humans is currently understudied. Significant relationships between visual system size and increasing latitude suggest that enlarged eyes were an evolutionary mechanism for individuals with compromised light availability. Other factors related to varying geographic location may also play a role.

Discriminative grandparental investment – the impact of grandchild´s gender and sociodemographic parameters
Sylvia Kirchengast and Beatrix Putz

Homo sapiens is a typical cooperative breeder and grandparents are among the most important caregivers besides the mothers. Grandparental investment however differs markedly between maternal and paternal grandparents but also between grandmothers and grandfathers. From an evolutionary viewpoint this differential grandparental investment is mainly explained as a result of paternity uncertainty. On the other hand emotional support and child care help from grandparents may also be associated with sociocultural factors. The present study focused on the impact of grandchild’s gender, but also grandparental age and occupation on discriminative grandparental investment, i.e. solicitude, contact frequency and quality of relationship. 272 adults persons between the age 18 and 35 years (x= 23.5yrs; ±3.7) were enrolledin the study. Patterns of grandparental investment during childhood as well as quality of the grandparent-grandchild relationship were collected retrospectively using a 57 item questionnaire. As to be expected maternal grandmothers showed the highest contact frequency and the highest solicitude while -as to be expected – the paternal grandfather exhibited the lowest degree of investment. Grandparental investment was independent of grandparent category mainly influenced by residential distance. Grandchild´s gender and sociodemographic characteristics of the grandparents in contrast had a minor impact on grandparental caregiving and contact frequency. Contrary, grandchild´s gender was related significantly with the quality of relationship and emotional closeness.

Body composition of Slovak midlife women with cardiovascular complications
Darina Drozdová, Zuzana Danková, Veronika Čerňanová, Daniela Siváková

The aim of this study was to analyse differences in body composition of women with and without cardiovascular complications. Bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioimpedance monofrequency analyser (BIA 101) and tissue electric properties were analysed by bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA). The clinical sample (with CVD) consisted of 254 women ranging in age between 39 and 65 years. The sample of women without CVD consisted of 318 women in the same age range and was created from database of our previous studies. Statistical analysis adjusted for age showed significant differences in body composition characteristics of the studied samples. The results of vector analysis showed significantly different tissue electric properties of women in studied groups, what was confirmed by the Hotelling T2-test (p=0.0000). More women with CVD attained risky mean values of obesity indices of BMI and WHR than their “healthy” counterparts. Among women with CVD 80.2% had higher value of the BMI index than optimal one (>24.9 kg/m2) and 74.4% of women had higher value of the WHR index than optimal (>0.80). From the BIA parameters strong correlation coefficient was found between BMI and FM in both groups (r=0.962 for women with CVD; r=0.968 for relatively healthy women). Our data confirmed that cardiovascular disease complications are strongly linked in body composition changes. The cross-sectional nature of our study makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding causal pathways, though variables of obesity are in line with unhealthy conditions.

The relationship between facial morphology, body measurements and socio-economic factors
Marie Jandová, Petra Urbanová

Background and aim: The effect of socio-economic factors (living conditions) and parental smoking habits on development of facial morphology and body measurements was studied on a longitudinal Czech sample of 25 girls and 25 boys.
Subjects and methods: A set of studied digitalized photographs taken from 0.5 to 18 years in intervals of 6 months originated in the Brno Longitudinal Study. Facial shape changes of sub-adult participants were described using a configuration of 27 landmarks and further studied by using methods of geometric morphometric and multivariate statistics. In order to localize growth-related shape changes within the face, the studied region was divided into upper, middle and lower facial units and analyzed separately.
Results and conclusion: The results show that in the course of ontogenesis there is a strong correlation between facial shape change and body measurements, height included (r=0.10 and r=0.24 in boys and in girls, respectively). The pubertal spurt of the facial shape change rate was revealed at 10.5 years in girls and at 11.5 years in boys. The earlier onset of the pubertal rate increase in facial shape changes in boys was associated with records of poor living conditions. In addition, the mother’s smoking habits were linked to a noticeable facial shape change.

Morphological optimization of female combat sports athletes as seen by the anthropologists
Anna Burdukiewicz, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Justyna Andrzejewska, Aleksandra Stachoń

Body build and proportions are key determinants of athletic success. The effects of the athlete selection process and discipline-specific training are differentiated body dimensions. The aim of the study was to examine the physical characteristics of female combat athletes. The results of anthropometric measurements of 154 females aged 21.2±1.79 years competing in judo, jiu-jitsu, karate, taekwondo, and fencing for 7.5±3.43 years.
Significant differences were observed between the judo and karate, taekwondo and fencing practitioners in chest, hip, arm and forearm girths. More variance was observed in body proportions. Fencers had the slimmest body shape, a more massive body size in the judokas. Longer upper extremities relative to lower extremity length were found in the jiu-jitsu group. Relative to body height, a larger torso and greater girths were observed in the judokas compared with the fencing, karate, and taekwondo practitioners. The groups did not differ in the level of endomorphy. Mesomorphy was highest in judokas and the lowest in fencers, although ectomorphy was most dominant in the latter group.
Females practitioners of combat sports exhibit differences in physical characteristics as an effect of optimizing body type and build via the training and athlete selection process of a given discipline. The anthropometric measures could play a role in talent identification programmes for martial arts and help the trainers to optimize the motoric effectiveness of athletes.

No effect of birth month or season on height in a large international sample of adults
Robin S.S. Kramer

Although several studies in recent years have provided evidence of a relationship between month of birth and height during childhood, the association remains less clear for adult (final) height. Here, I investigated this relationship using a large international sample of adult actors. Analyses considered both the sample as a whole, as well as subsamples based on nationality, and treated men and women separately. In all instances, I found no relationship between birth month or season and height, even after controlling for year of birth. This may be due to the particular nature of samples of actors, who are taller than the general population, or could suggest more broadly that birth month effects are minimal or absent in adults.

The Invaders. How Humans and Their Dogs Drove Neanderthals to Extinction
Anna Maria Kubicka

Book review
Pat Shipman. (editor). 2015. The Invaders. How Humans and Their Dogs Drove Neanderthals to Extinction. London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press Cambridge, England, 288 pp. ISBN: 978-0-674-73676-4.

Volume 79, 2016, Issue 1


Palaeopathology and its relevance to understanding health and disease today:the impact of the environment on health, past and present
Charlotte Ann Roberts

This paper considers the discipline of palaeopathology, how it has developed, how it is studied, and what limitations present challenges to analysis. The study of disease has a long history and has probably most rapidly developed over the last 40–50 years with the development of methods, and particularly ancient pathogen DNA analysis. While emphasizing that palaeopathology has close synergies to evolutionary medicine, it focuses then on three ‘case studies’ that illustrate the close interaction people have had with their environments and how that has impacted their health. Upper and lower respiratory tract disease has affected sinuses and ribs, particularly in urban contexts, and tuberculosis in particular has been an ever present disease throughout thousands of years of our existence. Ancient DNA methods are now allowing us to explore how strains of the bacteria causing TB have changed through time. Vitamin D deficiency and ‘phossy jaw’ are also described, both potentially related to polluted environments, and possibly to working conditions in the industrial period. Access to UV light is emphasized as a preventative factor for rickets and where a person lives is important (latitude). The painful stigmatizing ‘phossy jaw’ appears to be a condition related to the match making industries. Finally, thoughts for the future are outlined, and two key concerns: a close consideration of ethical issues and human remains, especially with destructive analyses, and thinking more about how palaeopathological research can impact people beyond academia.

Association of FTO and TMEM18 polymorphisms with overweight and obesity in the population of Polish children
Iwona Rosset, Dominik Strapagie, Aneta Sitek, Małgorzata Majewska, Lidia Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Elżbieta Żądzińska


The objective of the study was to verify whether or not FTO rs9939609, rs9926289 and TMEM18 rs4854344, rs6548238, rs2867125 variants are important risk factors for overweight and/or obesity in Polish children aged 6–16 (n=283). FTO rs 9939609 and rs9926289 exhibited a strong codominant obesity-predisposing effect of genotypes homozygous for minor alleles (OR=5.42, 95% CI: 2.04–14.39, p=0.0006). The important finding of the study is increased risk of overweight (OR=5.03, 95% CI: 1.15–21.93, p=0.0306) in individuals homozygous for the minor alleles rs4854344, rs6548238 and rs2867125 in the recessive inheritance model, while no other significant associations between TMEM18 variants and risk of obesity were found. Given the identified interaction TMEM18 genotype × BMI category (p=0.0077), it seems that the effect of homozygous for the minor alleles may be compared to a “weight guard”, which significantly increases the risk of overweight, but not of obesity, because it promotes weight gain only up to the threshold of obesity. Conclusion: The proposed hypothetical effect (“weight guard”) of homozygous for the minor alleles in the TMEM18 based on a rather small sample is a possible explanation of the effects of minor alleles, which minimize the risk of obesity.

Detecting overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys based on skinfold thickness
Mahfouz Al-Bachir, Hussam Ahhmad


There is no data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide baseline and reference data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys using skin-fold thickness measurements and deuterium dilution (DD) as a reference method. The sample of 2470 healthy Syrian 18- to 19-year-old boys were enrolled in this study. SFTs were measured at the biceps (B), triceps (T), subscapular (SI) and suprailiac locations (SS) were done and validated using the DD technique as a reference method. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the Σ2 limb SFT (T+B), Σ2 trunk SFT (SI+SS), Σ4 SFT (T+B+SI+SS) and Log Σ4 SFT for defining overweight and obesity. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys, based on biceps SFT, triceps SFT, subscapular SFT, suprailiac SFT, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT, logarithm Σ4 SFT, and DDT were 35.3%, 32%, 31.6%, 14.8%, 32.9%, 26.6%, 28.1%, 24.1%, 46.5%, respectively. Strongly positive correlation was found between SFT and total body fat in adolescents. For diagnosing overweight on the basis of Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT, we propose the following cut-off points: 17.25 mm, 23.50 mm, 39.25 mm and 1.60, respectively. To predict obesity, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT threshold were increased to 23.25 mm, 32.50 mm, 55.25 and 1.75, respectively. Basing on SFT clearly leads to underestimates of the prevalence of weight problems among young boys. SFT measurement screen missed 11.2 to 31.7% of overall overweight and obesity cases.

Predictive equations for height estimation using knee height of older Bengalees of Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India
Binoy Kuiti, Kaushik Bose


For nutritional assessment work for older population, it is important to be able to estimate body height based on knee height. The present report describes three equations for height estimation among older Bengalees based on knee height and compares the results with knee height based formulae developed for several other populations. Anthropometric measurements were analyzed from 114 (62 men and 52 women) older subjects aged >= 55 years. The subjects were randomly selected from two blocks (Contai I and Ramnagar I), at coastal area of Purba Medinipur District in West Bengal, India. A population specific formula for height was created based on knee height of the subjects. These estimated formulae from the present study and fourteen other previously reported formulae were also applied to these older population and the mean estimation errors were statistically compared. Analysis indicated that our derived formulae gave accurate estimation of height among the subjects.

Sex determination from femora in late antique sample from Eastern Adriatic coast (Salona necropolis)
Ivan Jerković, Željana Bašić, Ivana Kružić, Šimun Anđelinović

The determination of sex is one of the first steps in anthropological analysis. When skeletal remains are fragmented, the most useful approach is application of osteometric methods. The methods are population specific, and therefore require development of discriminant functions for each population group.
The aim of this study was to test sexual dimorphism of femoral measurements and to calculate discriminant functions applicable for sex determination on fragmented skeletal remains on the late antique sample from the Eastern Adriatic coast (2nd–6th century AD). 214 randomly chosen skeletons from the excavation site Solin-Smiljanovac were analyzed. Sex and age were assessed using standard anthropological methods, and skeletons were examined for pathologic and traumatic changes. In the next step, we selected 27 female and 48 male skeletons free of peri- or post-mortem changes that could affect measurements Eight standard femoral measurements were taken. Sexual dimorphism was initially compared using independent sample t test, after which discriminant functions were computed.
All femoral measurements showed statistically significant sexual dimorphism (p<0.001). Ten discriminant functions for every part of femur were calculated and obtained classification accuracy of 73.1–91.8%. This study reached relatively high classification, which will improve further analysis of the skeletal remains from the Salona necropolis. Due to similar population structure in the Roman period across the Adriatic coast, the discriminant functions could be applicable for all populations from the same period and area. This study also raised a few methodological questions showing that when creating discriminant functions we should consider not only the accuracy, but also the applicability based on the experience from the anthropology laboratory that considers the state of preservation and frequent pathology.

Two cases of osteoid osteoma in skulls dating from the 13–14th centuries from St. Elisabeth’s Church in Wrocław, Poland
Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka, Barbara Kwiatkowska, Jacek Szczurowski, Stanisław Gronkiewicz, Paweł Dąbrowski

In the study two human skulls recovered from archaeological excavations at St. Elizabeth’s Church in Wrocław, dating from the 13–14th centuries were assessed. Direct measurements of each skull were recorded, and X-ray images in P-A, lateral and basal projections were taken. The skulls represented adult males. Large, bony, lobular tumours were found on the palatine bones of both skulls. X-ray examination identified these tumours as osteoid osteomas, which are benign bone tumours that may originate in the periosteum or may be located inside the bone, distorting the maxilla or mandible. However, osteoid osteoma of the palatine is very rare. This study extends our knowledge regarding the health and diseases of historical populations.

A Companion to Medical Anthropology
Elżbieta Żądzińska

Volume 78, 2015, Issue 3


Relation between medical sociology and sociology of ageing or later life. A new challenges, social expectations and dilemmas
Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk

Medical sociology has not paid special attention to observed demographic changes associated with the “greying of societies”. Lack of interest in ageing has resulted in the necessity to develop a new subdiscipline – sociology of aging. The evolution of this subdiscipline has been described in relation to social gerontology. Theories of aging (healthy, successful) have been presented in relation to new changes. Dilemmas and intractable problems focus on prejudices concerning the older persons, gender-related differences in the quality of life in older age, elderly abuse, and quality of life in mentally ill old people as well as other issues.

Unconventional therapists and their patients in Polish traditional folk medicine
Włodzimierz Piątkowski, Anita Majchrowska

Folk medicine is a clearly distinct, comparatively homogeneous and closed system which has arisen from many centuries of isolation and self-sufficiency of the people of the Polish countryside. A feature of this special system involved tradition and relatively consistent illness behaviors, resistant to broader influences of the global society, despite the gradually growing role of modernization factors. An inherent feature of folk culture that impacted behaviors and attitudes of the rural population towards illness was the co-occurrence and overlapping of mystical-magical and religious elements. These applied both to the views on etiology, prevention, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. Special functions in healing activities in the countryside were performed by the elderly. The matters related to health and illness were the province of the elderly as they were respected and revered for their life’s wisdom and life experience. The purpose of the article is to show the specificity of non-medical treatment in the context of social and cultural determinants, placing special emphasis on the role and importance of the elderly in exercising treatment roles.

Promotion of sexual health among seniors in the self-help media realm of popular culture
Mariola Bieńko

The issue of seniors’ sexuality, especially the aspect of sexual activity undertaken by people considered “old” is usually met with silence or even condemned. The stereotypical assumptions are that with age a person’s needs associated with feeling and realizing their own sexuality dissipate, and seniors are perceived as asexual beings.
Only in the last decades of the XX century did this area of “taboo” become the subject of in-depth scientific interest and research. The average life span is increasing, and as research shows, so is the number of people who are sexually active and satisfied with intercourse at an elderly age. For hundreds of years, in Western culture, sexual health was equated with reproductive ability. The contemporary concept of health emphasizes that it is a value which allows a person to realize aspirations regardless of age.
This article focuses on the content of guides which bring up the importance of seniors’ sexual health. The aestheticization characteristic of the late modern period forces a deconstruction of the concept of old age. In the rhetoric of the everyday and the narcissistic style of the realm of experts, experiencing old age simultaneously becomes a source of pleasure, as well as frustration on the road to an individual’s self-realization and self-creation.

Religiousness, well-being and ageing – selected explanations of positive relationships
Barbara Woźniak

According to a large amount of research conducted in the field of gerontology, sociology and psychology of ageing, there is a relationship between the level of religious involvement and  health status/well-being/quality of life in older age. How does religiousness influence one’s aging and health? The aim of the article is to review explanations of a positive relationship between religiousness and health that are discussed in the literature. Those explanations may be grouped in three broad categories reflecting three functions of religion that play a role for well-being in older age. Those functions are: (1) religiousness as a source of coherence and the role of religious coping and provision of meaning in dealing with stressful life events (including ageing losses) (2) religiousness as a source of positive self-perception and a sense of personal control, (3) provision of social resources (i.e. social ties and social support) within religious community and emphasis on interpersonal relations (with special focus on forgiveness as a norm in interpersonal relations). Those functions of religion are discussed in the context of their potential role in successful ageing, as determined by – among others – active engagement in life.

On the doorstep to senility: physical changes, health status and well-being in midlife
Maria Kaczmarek

The movement of the baby boomers into the middle ages made the 45–65 age cohort the largest and the fastest growing segment of population in the first decade of the 21st century. This demographic expansion will have multiple consequences for ageing society. This paper aimed to provide an overview on biology of midlife transition. Physical characteristics, midlife-specific morbidity and mortality were described with focus to sexual dimorphism in physique and gender gap in mortality and morbidity. These characteristics made midlife a separate and unique stage of life. In-depth knowledge of this life stage may be useful in identifying and solving problems of ageing individuals and population.

Older people’s beliefs on prevention and etiology of cancer in Poland. Implications for health promotion
Małgorzata Synowiec–Piłat

Introduction: Poland is among the countries with the highest mortality rates from cancer, and 75% of deaths from cancer occur after the age of 60. In the case of cancer, particular attention should be paid to beliefs people have in society.Aim of research: To learn about older people’s beliefs about the importance of preventive oncology care, individual’s responsibility for getting cancer, and the etiology of cancer. We analyzed the association between beliefs about cancer and the age of the respondents. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 2012 with a sample of 910 adult residents of Wrocław. An interview questionnaire was used.  The article presents data on  older adults  (aged older than 56 years) (N = 188). Results: The vast majority of respondents recognize the need to engage in preventive oncology care. Only 5% of respondents hold fatalistic beliefs, 50% of older adults believe that "if someone is sick with cancer, it does not depend on them”. An association was confirmed that the oldest adults (65 years and older) are more likely to agree with the above statement, 34% disagree with the belief that "if someone is sick with cancer it depends largely on the lifestyle and the environment”. Discussion: In developing strategies for cancer prevention aimed at older adults, special attention should be paid to raising awareness about the impact of lifestyle on cancer incidence, increasing the sense of responsibility for their health, and reducing older adult’s  "external locus of control" beliefs.

Health literacy and health among the elderly: status and challenges in the context of the Polish population aging process
Zofia A. Słońska, Agnieszka A. Borowiec, Anita E. Aranowska

 Introduction: Poland is a country which is characterized by the process of population aging resulting in a dynamic growth of the old-age dependency ratio. Thus, along with the aging process, we can expect, both at the individual and at the societal level, the intensification of the problems related to coping with worsening health and social dependency of the growing number of the elderly. One of the most necessary action contributing to the prevention of the above-mentioned threats is the development of health literacy. Study aim: The aim of the study is to describe and analyze, in the context of the process of aging, the status, the structure and the role of health literacy among the elderly in Poland. Material and methods: The analyzed data come from the Polish part of the European Health Literacy population-based, cross-sectional survey (HLS-EU). Field work was carried out by the TNS OBOP Research Institute in July 2011. Data were collected in Polish by a standardized questionnaire, using a Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI). Results and conclusions: Almost every second person in the Polish adult population aged 15+ (44,6%) had low health literacy(inadequate + problematic). First of all the oldest people aged 65+ were at risk of low health literacy. 61,3% of Poles aged 65+ had low levels of general health literacy and only 12% of excellent, in contrast to people aged 50 years and below where these percentages were 39.9% and 21.5% respectively. In the context of this unsatisfactory level of health literacy, particularly in the elderly and the intensifying process of aging in the Polish population, health literacy development should occupy a very high position on the political agenda.

Comorbidities in patients over 60 years of age treated at the rehabilitation clinic
Magdalena Pietrzyńska, Barbara Stawińska–Witoszyńska, Alicja Krzyżaniak, Magdalena Łańczak–Trzaskowska, Kamila Nowak

 Patients aged above 60 represent a very diversified population group with respect to their health condition. This may result from multimorbidity. In the rehabilitation process of elderly patients it is especially crucial to identify not only the underlying diseases which constituted the grounds for referral to the rehabilitation clinic, but also the comorbidities that have to be taken into consideration while planning their rehabilitation. The aim of the present paper is the assessment of comorbidities in patients of the rehabilitation clinic. The study population included 1616 patients (447 and 1169 women) treated at the rehabilitation clinic. The factors put through analysis were the age and gender of the patient, the main diagnosed (underlying) illness subject to rehabilitation treatment, as well as comorbidities. All diseases, both the underlying conditions and the comorbidities have been classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th revised edition). The main reasons for the treatment at the rehabilitation outpatient clinic were arthrosis of the spine, knee and hip joints, polyarthritis, osteoporosis, diseases of the central nervous system diseases and paralytic syndromes as consequences of strokes, hypertension or atherosclerosis, as well as post-traumatic conditions. The most frequent comorbidities occurring in patients of the rehabilitation clinic were cardiovascular diseases (irrespective of the age group and the underlying disease). In the age group of 60-64, the subsequent comorbidities were gastrointestinal and cancers, and in the age of 65-74, neoplasms were the most frequently occurring comorbidities. The performed analysis resulted in the following conclusions: The majority of patients diagnosed and treated at the rehabilitation centre suffered from irregularities in the muscular, articular and skeletal system or the connective tissue (those were mainly the arthrosis of the spine, hip and knee joints as well as osteoporosis). The most frequently observed comorbidities in patients of the rehabilitation clinic were cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, as well as neoplasms.

Longitudinal and cross-sectional changes with age in selected anthropometric and physiological traits in hospitalized adults: an insight from the Polish Longitudinal Study of Aging (PLSA)
Piotr Chmielewski, Krzysztof Borysławski, Krzysztof Chmielowiec, Jolanta Chmielowiec

Longitudinal studies of aging concerning individuals with comparable lifestyle, diet, health profile, socioeconomic status, and income remain extraordinarily rare. The purposes of our ongoing project are as follows: (i) to collect extensive data on biological and medical aspects of aging in the Polish population, (ii) to determine factors affecting the rate and course of aging, (iii) to understand how aging unfolds as a dynamic and malleable process in ontogeny, and (iv) to find novel predictors of longevity. Our investigation followed 142 physically healthy asylum inmates, including 68 males and 74 females, for at least 25 years from the age of 45 years onward. Cross-sectional assessment involved 225 inmates, including 113 males and 112 females. All the patients lived for a very long time under similar and good environmental conditions at the hospital in Cibórz, Lubuskie Province. They maintained virtually the same daily schedule and lifestyle. The rate and direction of changes with age in selected anthropometric and physiological traits were determined using ANOVA,  t-test, and regression analysis. There were sex differences in the rate and pattern of age-related changes in certain characteristics such as relative weight, red blood cell count, monocyte count, thymol turbidity value, systolic blood pressure, and body temperature. Body weight, the body mass index (BMI), and total bilirubin level increased with advancing age, while body height decreased with age in both sexes. In conclusion, the aging process was associated with many regressive alterations in biological traits in both sexes but the rate and pattern of these changes depended on biological factors such as age and sex. There were only few characteristics which did not change significantly during the period under study. On the basis of comparison between the pattern of longitudinal changes with aging and the pattern of cross-sectional changes with age in the analyzed traits, we were able to predict which pattern of changes is associated with longer lifespan.

The risk for falls in older people in the context of objective functional studies
Zofia Ignasiak, Anna Skrzek, Sławomir Kozieł, Teresa Sławińska, Paweł Posłuszny, Krystyna Rożek

Falls may occur in each ontogenesis phase, but they become more frequent in the elderly and lead to serious health consequences. Dynamic changes in senior citizens’ environment and lifestyle makes studies of risk for falls necessary. To determine the relationship between the risk for falls and the objective functional and structural examination in the elderly living in Poland. The research consisted of 196 females and 61 males aged 60­–88 recruited from health clinics, senior citizen centers and Universities of the Third Age between 2009-2012. Following parameters were collected: functional physical tests “30 second Chair Stand Test” and Timed Up and Go Test”, the flexor muscles and knee extensors force, the bone mineral density was measured in distal radius of the forearm with the EXA – 3000, the total risk for fall assessed by 5 tests by abbreviated version of Fallscreen test. Multiple linear regression and linear correlation were used for assessment of relationship with total estimated risk for fall and other parameters. The subjects displayed significant dimorphic differences within the range of the functional parameters and bone mineral density to the advantage of males. Only in women results revealed a significant link between the risk for falls and the dynamic balance, as well as the maximum quadricep muscle force equal. Strength of the lower limb muscles seems to be critical for decreasing the risk for fall. Special programs for strengthening this part of the body for older people should be elaborate.

Volume 78, 2015, Issue 2


The life history of Ardipithecus ramidus: a heterochronic model of sexual and social maturation
Gary Clark, Maciej Henneberg

In this paper we analyse the ontogeny of craniofacial growth in Ardipithecus ramidus in the context of its possible social and environmental determinants. We sought to test the hypothesis that this form of early hominin evolved a specific adult craniofacial morphology via heterochronic dissociation of growth trajectories. We suggest the lack of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial morphology provides evidence for a suite of adult behavioral adaptations, and consequently an ontogeny, unlike any other species of extant ape. The lack of sexually dimorphic craniofacial morphology suggests A. ramidus males adopted reproductive strategies that did not require male on male conflict. Male investment in the maternal metabolic budget and/or paternal investment in offspring may have been reproductive strategies adopted by males. Such strategies would account for the absence of innate morphological armoury in males. Consequently, A. ramidus would have most likely had sub-adult periods of socialisation unlike that of any extant ape. We also argue that A.ramidus and chimpanzee craniofacial morphology are apomorphic, each representing a derived condition relative to that of the common ancestor, with A. ramidus developing its orthognatic condition via paedomoporhosis, and chimpanzees evolving increased prognathism via peramorphosis. In contrast we suggest cranial volume and life history trajectories may be synapomorphic traits that both species inherited and retained form a putative common ancestral condition. Our analysis also provides support for the hypothesis that an intensification of maternal care was central to the process of hominization.

Strontium isotopes as an indicator of human migration – easy questions, difficult answers
Krzysztof Szostek, Katarzyna Mądrzyk, Beata Cienkosz-Stepańczak

Isotope analyses of bones and teeth allow us to study phenomena which occurred in the history of human species and which are difficult to capture by traditional anthropological methods. Measuring ox­ygen, nitrogen and carbon isotope levels in the skeleton makes it possible to reconstruct climatic changes, diet and/or the weaning process. Among isotopes used in such analyses are strontium isotopes, helpful in analysing migration and studying the mobility of historical and prehistoric human populations. In this respect, the proportion of two isotopes, the heavier 87Sr and the lighter 86Sr, is measured, following their extraction from the bioapatite of the bone mineral. Released from rocks in the weathering process, stron­tium permeates individual components of inanimate and animate environments, and then finds its way, together with food, to the human body. Thanks to comprehensive environmental studies and the measure­ment of the strontium ratio 87Sr/86Sr in various animal tissues it is possible to determine the local isotope background for the environment. Values obtained by analysing human skeletons referenced against the range of environmental isotope variability enable researchers to trace back the location inhabited by the individual or group.

Height loss with advancing age in a hospitalized population of Polish men and women: magnitude, pattern and associations with mortality
Piotr Chmielewski, Krzysztof Borysławski, Krzysztof Chmielowiec, Jolanta Chmielowiec

The connection between the rate of height loss in older people and their general health status has been well documented in the medical literature. Our study was aimed at furthering the characterization of this interrelationship in the context of health indices and mortality in a hospitalized population of Polish adults. Data were collated from a literature review and from a longitudinal study of aging carried out in the Polish population which followed 142 physically healthy inmates, including 68 men and 74 women, for at least 25 years from the age of 45 onwards. Moreover, cross-sectional data were available from 225 inmates, including 113 men and 112 women. These subjects were confined at the same hospital. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were employed. The results indicate that the onset of height loss emerges in the fourth and five decade of life and there is a gradual acceleration of reduction of height at later stages of ontogeny in both sexes. Postmenopausal women experience a more rapid loss of height compared with men. The individuals who had higher rate of loss of height (≥3 cm/decade) tend to be at greater risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In conclusion, our findings suggest that a systematic assessment of the rate of loss of height can be useful for clinicians caring for elderly people because of its prognostic value in terms of morbidity and mortality.

Grow first, gain fat in the meantime. Longitudinal study of anthropometric changes around menarche
Anna Ziomkiewicz, Sławomir Kozieł

There is a long dispute among anthropologist over which factor is more important – skeletal maturation or energy accumulation – for menarche occurrence. Here we report results of longitudinal study conducted on the sample of 178 girls followed for the period from 2 years before to 2 years after the age of menarche. Each year during this period anthropometric measures of waist and hip circumference, pelvis breadth, subscapular, triceps and abdominal skinfold thickness were taken to document girls’ physical development. We found that changes in hip circumference and pelvis breadth were the most closely asso­ciated with menarche appearance. We also found that changes in anthropometric measures of lower body part preceded changes in anthropometric measures of upper body part and tended to peak one year before menarche occurrence while changes in upper body part tended to peak one year after menarche occurrence. These results suggest that both skeletal maturation and energy accumulation in the form of fat are equally important for menarche to occur. Furthermore, we are proposing a new indicator describing allometric changes of pelvis around menarche: hip circumference to pelvis breadth ratio (HCPBR).

Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study
Jadwiga Charzewska, Zofia Chwojnowska, Bożena Wajszczyk, Elżbieta Chabros

The objective of this study was to determine time trends ( 1982–2006) in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old), from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food in­take was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4), taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1%) and girls (to 33,7%), what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

Nutritional status among boys and girls of a central Indian Town (Sagar)
Rachna Thakur, Rajesh K. Gautam

The prevalence of undernutrition is a significant area of concern in many developing countries, where it is a major public health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of undernutri­tion among school-going boys and girls of central Indian city Sagar, MP. A total of 612 individuals (312 girls and 300 boys) aged 5–18 years were examined and compared to the NCHS reference data. The nutritional status was assessed using following anthropometric indicators: body height and weight, body mass index (BMI) and composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). It was found that girls were heavier (1 kg) and taller (2–5 cm) than boys up to 15 and 13 years of age, respectively. After that, boys became taller with 1 to 13 cm. The mean BMI of boys was higher to girls up to 10 year of age after that the trend was reversed. Comparison of the present findings with NCHS reference data revealed that Indian girls and boys were lag­ging behind. The difference in body weight between the reference data and the present sample was around 5 to 6 kg. The pattern of difference in body height revealed small amount during early childhood ( and 9.6 cm in girls and boys 5 years of age). This difference more than doubled at the age of 14 years in girls 16.7 cm and in boys 17.5 cm (p<0.01). Similar pattern was found for BMI with 6.5 kg/m2 and 6.3 kg/ m2 in 14 years old girls and 16 years old boys (p<0.01). Z-score values of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age revealed that that boys were more likely to be stunted than girls whereas girls were more likely to be underweight and undernourished than boys. In terms of CIAF 10.6% girls and 10% boys were undernourished. The results of the present study indicate that there is great need for implementation of health programmes to eliminate gender inequalities and improve children’s health.

Palaeopathology of human remains of the 1st century BC–3rd century AD from Armenia (Beniamin, Shirakavan I)
Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan

The aim of this article was to document the pathology of the individuals from the archeological sites of Beniamin and Shirakavan I, Armenia, dated on the 1st century BC - 3rd century AD. The findings revealed that two groups differed in mean age at death of adults. At Beniamin it was 24 years, 40.8 years for males and 30.9 years for females, whereas at Shirakavanit it was 29.3 years, 29.6 years for males and 35.8 years for females. The greatest mortality appeared to have occurred when the children reached the age of one year (Beniamin). The population had high number of young-adult females with a cause of death associated with child-bearing . Very few females survived to old age. Traumatic conditions (63.64%) and enamel hypoplasias (57.2%) have a high frequency in the skeletal material from Shirakavan. The volume of selection of Shirakavan does not allow itself to so big discussion as it was possible with the Beniamin site. Fewer hypoplasias in Beniamin group indicate that food resources were more abundant and more easily exploited. The small frequency of a periodontal disorder indicates that dental hygiene was good during the Antiquity period. We here report a case of possible pituitary dwarfism and a case of decapitation.

Tracing childhood. Bioarchaeological Investigations of Early Lives in Antiquity
Elżbieta Żądzińska

Jennifer L. Thompson, Marta P. Alfonso-Durruty, John J. Crandall. (editors). 2014. Tracing childhood. Bio­archaeological Investigations of Early Lives in Antiquity. Florida: University Press of Florida, USA, 270 pp. ISBN: 978-0-8130-4983-0.

VOLUME 78, 2015 issue 1


Dietary proclivities of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, South Africa
Frank L’Engle Williams

Pleistocene Paranthropus robustus fossils from Swartkrans have yielded stable isotope values sug­gesting some foraging on C4 plants possibly including underground storage organs. Dental microwear texture analysis on P. robustus (SK 6, SK 34 and SK 47) from Swartkrans Member 1 is performed to examine whether tooth surface damage from mastication agrees with prior dietary inferences from carbon isotopes. There is considerable variation in textural characteristics among the P. robustus specimens. Specifically, adult SK 34 stands apart from the two subadult specimens, SK 6 and SK 47, suggesting life history could be reflected in patterns of dental microwear texture characteristics, although seasonality and availability of fallback foods may also explain the variation observed in P. robustus. The fossils all exhibit elevated surface texture complexity, resembling the values for Lophocebus albigena and Cebus apella, and to a lesser extent, Pan troglodytes. Paranthropus robustus is dissimilar to primary folivores, such as Trachypithecus cristatus or foli­vore-frugivores such as Alouatta palliata suggesting leaves comprised very little of its diet. The textural fill volume of P. robustus differs from that observed in extant primates from tropical forests indicating extreme durophagy, perhaps a function of differences in habitat. Ingestion of extraneous grit on the underground parts of plants and from terrestrial resources, perhaps as fallback foods or as dietary staples, may account for these enamel textural properties and may help explain the mixed C3/C4 isotopic signal in P. robustus.

Can ancestry be consistently determined from the skeleton?
Ingrid Sierp, Maciej Henneberg

Although the concept of race has been thoroughly criticised in biological anthropology, forensic anthropology still uses a number of methods to determine the ‘race’ of a skeleton. The methods must be evaluated to see how effective they are given large individual variation. This study used 20 cases of skeletons of varied provenance to test whether the nine published methods of ‘race’ determination, using a range of various approaches, were able to consistently identify the ethnic origin. No one individual was identified as belonging to just one ‘major racial class’, e.g. European, meaning that complete consistency across all nine methods was not observed. In 14 cases (70%), various methods identified the same individ­ual as belonging to all three racial classes. This suggests that the existing methods for the determination of ‘race’ are compromised. The very concept of ‘race’ is inapplicable to variation that occurs between pop­ulations only in small ways and the methods are limited by the geographic population from which their discriminant functions or observations of morphological traits were derived. Methods of multivariate linear discriminant analysis, e.g. CRANID, are supposed to allocate an individual skull to a specific population rather than a ‘major race’. In our analysis CRANID did not produce convincing allocations of individual skeletons to specific populations. The findings of this study show that great caution must be taken when attempting to ascertain the ‘race’ of a skeleton, as the outcome is not only dependent on which skeletal sites are available for assessment, but also the degree to which the unknown skeleton’s population of origin has been investigated.

Specificity of structure of complete mortality of individuals buried in the cemetery at the hospital and the church of Holy Spirit as compared to other cemeteries in Lublin from the 15th to 18th century
Wanda Kozak-Zychman, Anna Szarlip

The goal of the study is to analyse and evaluate a complete mortality of individuals buried in the cemetery at the hospital and the church of Holy Spirit in Lublin. The main question is whether and to what extent the results of research into the subject will reflect the physical condition and the low social status of individuals from the Holy Spirit hospital-poorhouse. The comparison includes burials of Lublin burghers, church dignitaries and religious brothers and sisters of the Cathedral and Pobrygidkowski Church. This study discusses such issues as the share of children, juveniles and adults, the sex ratio, distribution of age and sex of adult and the average life span for men and women. The differences in the cumulative distribu­tions of age frequency (dx) for the compared cemeteries were assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To evaluate the differences in average life span of adults the Student’s t-test was used after verification of the equality of variance by using the F-Snedecor test. The cemetery at the hospital and the church of Holy Spirit clearly stands out among comparable sites, not only in the way of burying the dead. The study of individuals buried in the Holy Spirit cemetery showed: the largest share of children and juveniles, as well as small percentage of individuals over the age of 50 years, which resulted from a low average life span for both men and women (significant differences). The comparison of the cumulative relative numbers (dx) from the interval of 10–15 year shows this percentage to be the highest and remain so up to the last inter­val, i.e. 60 years and more (significant differences for group 15–20 years – compared with the Cathedral and the 30–40 years – compared with the Pobrygidkowski Church). A poor physical condition, clearly related with low social status, is indicated by a variety of illnesses, injuries and malformations which were recorded in a large number of the skeletal remains, i.e. more than 70% of individuals.


Adult tribal malnutrition in India: an anthropometric and socio-demographic review
Subal Das, Kaushik Bose

The nutritional status and socio-demographic profile of tribal people is an important issue in India due to their marginalization from main stream population with respect to varied facilities. However, data on their nutritional status and socio-demographic profile are limited. This review aims to give an overview of the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) using Body mass index (BMI) and various demographic profile of Indian tribes based on studies published hitherto. In total 76 studies were reviewed for mean BMI based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the public health problem of low BMI, based on adult populations worldwide. The overall sex specific prevalence of CED showed that both the tribal females (52.0%) and males (49.3%) were passing through the critical situation with respect to nutritional status with females being more underprivileged. 
In conclusion, although there is a gradual increase in knowledge about the nutritional and socio-demo­graphic status of tribes since last decades; there is still paucity of data and information on more than approximately 600 tribes regarding their bio-social profile. However previous studies clearly indicate the need to enhance the health and nutrition status of the tribes by providing job opportunity and food secu­rity. Since the prevalence of CED was higher (critical to serious situation) in tribal populations, concerted efforts should also be made to improve the health status and nutrition uptake among them.

Anthropometric indicators as predictors of the risk of metabolic syndrome in adult working men
Janusz Brudecki, Maria Chrzanowska

Measurement of body weight, height, waist and hip circumference is a standard procedure thatallows to better define the risk of metabolic syndrome.The aim of the study is to determine the usefulness of anthropometric indicators such as BMI, WC (waist circumference), WHR, WHtR and percentage of body fat to predict the metabolic cardiovascular risk in the adult male population of Krakow, as well as an attempt to determine the metabolic cardiovascular risk with the original anthropometric risk index. The study included 405 men from the population working in the T. Sendzimir Steelworks in Kraków at the age of 30–69 years. Anthropometric measurements: body height measured to the nearest mm, circuits (waist, hips) measured to the nearest centimetre, the percentage of fat (the type of electronic scales Tanita BF 300) measured according to the standard protocol by the same technician and biomedical indicators assessing the functional status of organism, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose and blood pressure measured with a mercury manometer. As a measure of goodness of fit for the indices of risk (and their components), the AUC method was used for the ROC curves to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test. The results show that significant in predicting the risk of metabolic syndrome are not only standard anthropometric measurements specified in the standards of WHO, EGIR, NCEP and IDF. In addition, it is important to take into account the amount of fat and calculate the cumulative risk index based on all relevant measurements and indicators.

Congenital syphilis in the skeleton of a child from Poland (Radom, 18th–19th century AD)
Jacek Tomczyk, Hanna Mańkowska-Pliszka, Piotr Palczewski, Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk

An incomplete skeleton of a 3-year-old child with suspected congenital syphilis was found in the Radom area of Poland. Squama frontalis and zygomatic bones are characterized by significant bone loss. Radiographic pictures show a geographic destructive lesion of a serpiginous shape surrounded by a zone of reactive osteosclerosis in the squama frontalis. The radiographic findings included a slight widening and contour irregularities of the distal humeral metaphyses. The appearance of teeth did not suggest Hutchinson teeth, but the examination of the permanent molars showed signs of mulberry molars. Two teeth were tested for the presence of mercury. Chemical analysis did not indicate mercury accumulation (enamel: 0.07 µg/g, dentine: 0.14 µg/g, bone: 0.11 µg/g). Mercury values obtained for the examined samples were similar to those that are typical of healthy teeth in today’s individuals.

Percentile distribution of blood pressure readings in relation to body mass index: a population-based cross-sectional study ADOPOLNOR
Alicja Krzyżaniak, Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Maria Kaczmarek, Małgorzata Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Aldona Siwińska

 Recent upward trends toward elevated blood pressure and increased weight expressed in terms of body mass index in children and adolescents call for regular monitoring of their physical growth and age-related changes in blood pressure. This requires adequate tools – reference values of a normal blood pressure range. The main objective of this study was to provide sex- and BMI-specific percentile reference values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure based on the adolescent Polish population, participants in the ADOPOLNOR study. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative, randomly selected cohort of
4,941; 2,451 male and 2,490 female students aged 10–18 years, residents in Wielkopolska province and its capital, the city of Poznań. All examinations were performed in school nursery rooms during morning hours according to standard procedures. Body height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Blood pressure was measured twice on each occasion on the right arm using a fully calibrated TECH MED TM-Z mercury gauge sphygmomanometer with sets of exchangeable cuffs and a clinical stethoscope. The blood pressure classification was determined using the surveillance method. For each participant, the mean of measurements taken on each of the three occasions was calculated and served as his/her final blood pressure value. Using the LMS method, fitted percentile curves were created for BMI-related systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The findings revealed that age related blood pressure pattern was similar in boys and girls. It showed a steady increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure with age. There was a positive correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicating that when systolic blood pressure increased so diastolic did (r=0.61 at p<0.01). Boys were likely to have relatively higher mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and steeper slope for BMI-related change in blood pressure than girls. Similar pattern was found for age-related changes in BMI. The quotation of 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th, and 97th at any given BMI between 12 kg/m2 and 35 kg/m2 provided indication of the entire variation in blood pressure of adolescent males and females aged 10–18 years. The sex- and BMI-specific reference values and charts for systolic and diastolic blood pressure may be a useful tool in monitoring blood pressure for early detection of its abnormal level and treatment of children and adolescents with high blood pressure.

A Companion to Biological Anthropology
Elżbieta Żądzińska

Clark Spencer Larsen (ed.). 2010. A Companion to Biological Anthropology. Wiley-Blackwell, United Kingdom, 572 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4051-8900-2

VOLUME 77, 2014 issue 3


The biological evolution of conscience – from parent-offspring conflict to morality
Eckart Voland

In this paper, two theories regarding the biological evolution of morality with conscience as its central regulatory agency are compared and contrasted. One theory (“navigator theory”) interprets conscience as a strategically operating agency for the optimum balance between selfish and altruistic behavioral tendencies to maximize gains in cooperation in view of social complexity. From this standpoint, conscience serves the evolved self-interest of the person having a conscience. In contrast hereto, the second theory (“helper theory”) locates the evolutionary origins of conscience on the battlefield of the parent-offspring conflict through intrafamilial demands for altruism. Functions of conscience, and thus human morality in a narrower sense, evolved during the transition of hominines to cooperative breeding and the novel helper conflict emerging through this evolution. The “helper theory” of the evolution of conscience can resolve some of the theoretical and empirical inconsistencies of the conventional “navigator theory”, in particular, the contradiction between the consequentialistic regulation of altruistic behavior and the non-consequentialistic nature of the judgment of conscience. And in contrast to the “navigator theory”, it is compatible with the observation that behavior guided by a conscience is not infrequently disastrous for one’s own fitness outcome.

A night on the town: when the importance of mate acquisition overrides intrasexual competition
Abraham P. Buunk, Karlijn Massar

It is argued that, while men may be intrasexually more competitive than women, to attract potential mates, men will, more than women, associate with same-sex friends who are attractive to the opposite sex. Therefore, more than women, men wil10.2478/anre-2014-0021l choose more physically attractive and dominant companions in a mating context than in a neutral context.
The aim of the study was to examine if in a mating context, men will, more than women, choose companions who are attractive to the opposite sex.
In Study 1 among 262 participants a mating scenario (going to a party) and a neutral scenario (seeing a movie) were developed, and it was shown that the mating scenario did indeed induce more a mating context than the neutral scenario. In Study 2 among 167 participants the hypotheses were tested by examining the preferences for a companion in both scenarios.
The findings from Study 2 supported the predictions. In response to the mating as compared to the neutral scenario, men, but not women, found the attractiveness of a companion more important, preferred a more socially dominant companion, and found the social dominance of a companion more important. Men as well as women preferred in general companions who were less attractive than themselves, but preferred a more attractive companion in a mating than in a neutral context. The effects for social dominance were in general more pronounced among individuals high in sociosexual orientation (SOI).
Especially mens’ attitude towards same sex others in a mating context may be driven by the desire to associate, rather than to compete, with same-sex others who are attractive to the opposite sex.

Self-perceived sociosexuality and mate value asymmetry in heterosexual romantic relationships
Aleksandra Gomula, Natalia Nowak-Szczepanska, Dariusz P. Danel

Previous works have shown that sociosexuality may affect mate choice and correspond to partners’ mate value (MV). However, there is a lack of studies that directly show how a difference between both partners’ mate values (MVD) relates to reproductive strategies. In this study we investigated a possible link between self-reported measures of individual differences in human mating strategies (SOI-R) and self-perceived mate value asymmetry (difference between partners’ MV) in heterosexual romantic relationships.
249 heterosexual participants (all in romantic relationships) completed an online questionnaire. Their sociosexuality was measured using Revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R) (Penke and Asendorpf 2008). The assessment of the participant's and his/her partner's mate values were obtained using the MV measure by Graham-Kevan and Archer (2009). MVD was calculated by deducting the assessment of partner's MV and MV self-assessment.
Our results revealed that in men, with the increase of the discrepancy in mate value in favor of their female partners, male global sociosexuality (p = 0.005) and sociosexual desire (p < 0.0001) decreased. In contrast, in women no significant correlations were found (p > 0.05).
We propose several possible explanations, based on evolutionary psychology, discussing our results within the context of potential benefits for reproductive success in both sexes due to the lower male sociosexuality.

When men appear smaller or larger than they really are: preliminary evidence that women are fooled by size illusions in attractiveness judgment tasks
Yannick S. Ludwig, Thomas V. Pollet

In humans, studies have shown that contrast illusions can affect perceptions of facial attractiveness and dominance. In non-human animals, recent research found that contrast illusions of size positively affected male mate value. In humans, male height is a potentially important indicator of mate value, with women preferring men taller than themselves. We tested in two studies whether height contrast illusions could affect women’s perceptions of male height and mate value, particularly attractiveness, dominance, and muscularity. Using computer-generated images of men of different heights standing in groups of three, 104 female participants rated targets either surrounded by shorter, same height, or taller distractors in a within-subject design. The second experiment (N = 80) replicated and extended the first by making the images more realistic and adding natural backgrounds, suggesting that when participants are given a visual anchor, in order to get a better sense of the absolute height of the targets, the effects remain. In both studies, results showed that, compared with same height distractors, male targets were rated as taller when surrounded by shorter distractors, and as shorter when surrounded by taller distractors. Additionally, attractiveness, dominance, and muscularity perceptions were affected in a similar manner, with most of the differences in these appraisals being mediated by the perceived height differences. Therefore, differently sized distractors affected the perceived height and mate value of the targets, which were in effect all of the same constant size. These findings indicate that context dependent effects could potentially influence attractiveness judgments. The same man might thus be perceived as more attractive when surrounded by men of similar or smaller height, as opposed to when surrounded by men who are taller.

Olfactory processing and odor specificity: a meta-analysis of menstrual cycle variation in olfactory sensitivity
Lenka Martinec Nováková, Jan Havlíček, S. Craig Roberts

Cycle-correlated variation in olfactory threshold, with women becoming more sensitive to odors mid-cycle, is somewhat supported by the literature but the evidence is not entirely consistent, with several studies finding no, or mixed, effects. It has been argued that cyclic shifts in olfactory threshold might be limited to odors relevant to the mating context.
We aimed to test whether the evidence currently available points in the direction of odor-specific or, rather, general changes in olfactory sensitivity and, if the former is the case, to what group of odorants in particular.
We carried out a meta-analysis of relevant studies which together used a variety of different odorants, including some found in food, body odor and some that occur in neither of these. First we tested whether there appears to be an overall effect when all studies are included. Next, we hypothesised that if cyclic changes in olfactory processing are odor-specific and tuned to biologically relevant odors, we should find changes in detection thresholds only for odorants found in body odor, or for those that are perceptually similar to it. In contrast, if threshold patterns are linked to more general fluctuations in odor processing across the cycle, we would not expect changes in relation to any particular odorant group.
The results support the view that there is significant cycle-correlated variation. Thresholds were in general significantly lower in the fertile than the non-fertile phases, with effect sizes consistently in this direction. This same conclusion applied to both ‘food’ and ‘musky’ odorants, despite their different evolutionary significance, and to the androgen steroids (androstadienone, androstenone, and androsterone), but could not be applied to phenyl-ethyl alcohol.
The results indicate that olfactory sensitivity may be a non-adaptive by-product of the general physiological fluctuations or differences in neural processing experienced across the cycle to a broad spectrum of odorants, rather than being specifically selected for mate choice-related odors.

The influence of the boxing stance on performance in professional boxers
Piotr Sorokowski, Agnieszka Sabiniewicz, Sławomir Wacewicz

In boxing, athletes choose between two strategies: the orthodox stance characteristic of right handed competitors, or the southpaw stance characteristic of left-handers. Despite a conviction popular among the practitioners of this sport that fighting against a southpaw opponent constitutes a handicap, the effectiveness of the type of stance has so far not been examined. We extracted the statistics of the top twenty active professional boxing in each of the seventeen weight divisions. Out of the 340 boxers who composed our group, 75% used the orthodox stance and 25% were southpaw. Generally, we found that boxing stance had no effect on the percentage of 340 top professional boxers' victories. However, both the southpaw and the orthodox athletes had a higher percentage of victories against orthodox boxers than against southpaws.

On the human ethology of food sharing
Wulf Schiefenhövel

This paper compares various explanatory concepts of food sharing in humans. In many animal species, parents share food with their offspring, thus investing into the 50% of their own genes present in each child. Even in modern families of industrialised societies, there is a very significant flow of material goods from the parent to the offspring generation.  Sharing food between reproductive partners is also easily explainable in evolutionary terms: „food for sex“ as male strategy is observed in some primate species. Sharing within one’s group in small-scale societies can be explained also as consequence of its members being actually rather closely related to each other; this, among others, gives credit to the concept of group selection which gains attention again after having been discarded by classic sociobiology. The ethos of individual and group sharing can quite readily be transferred to larger groups, i.e. a whole nation or, especially in the case of unusually devastating natural disasters, to members of other societies. Food sharing beyond genetic relationship or reproductive interest has been explained as „tit for tat“ and „reciprocal altruism“. Events of give and take, however, are, how the last example demonstrates, quite often non-symmetrical, i.e. one partner shares much more than the other. „Tolerated theft“, a behavioural trait in non-human primate species thought to be a stepping stone for the typical preparedness of humans to share, does not play a big role in traditional societies, which provide an important base to discuss the topic. The Trobriand Islanders, e.g., have a very complex system of sharing. In the years of competitive harvest, their yield of yam is distributed to close relatives, especially to fathers and elder brothers. The donors keep almost nothing for themselves, are however given as well, so that everybody has enough to live. High rank men receive a partly enormous surplus, by which their status is increased. Western farmers would find this generosity quite strange. It is one outcome of the human tendency to create bonds through food gifts. 
It is interesting, that Marcel Mauss has well described the power of the gift which generates a counter gift, but did not inquire evolutionary nor ontogenetic building blocks of the often very complex acts and rituals of giving and receiving one finds in all cultures. It seems reasonable to take an evolutionary position and argue that those of our ancestors who were generous and socially competent with a well-developed emphronesis (Theory of Mind) were preferred interaction and marriage partners and that this sexual selection was the ultimate mechanism  spreading the motivations and behaviours involved in sharing. To counteract cheaters humans have a rather sharp perception to detect those who don’t play by the rules and a very strong motivation to punish them, even accepting, in doing so, high costs for themselves. This strongly disproves the idea that humans mainly act on rationale choice. Rather, we are endowed, one must conclude, with a very powerful, archaic sense of balanced social interaction, of fairness and justice. This raises the interesting question whether the laws governing social conduct, made by all cultures of the world, are contra or secundum naturam. For quite some time, in the wave of sociobiological thinking, the common stand was that humans are dangerously egoistic beings and that their antisocial instincts must be kept in check by powerful laws. As Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt, the founder of human ethology as a discipline, has stated and as recent primatological and anthropological research has corroborated, humans are much more social than postulated by some authors. The Ten Commandments are built on not against basic human tendencies. Konrad Lorenz spoke of animals having „morally analogous“ behaviours and was criticised for this. Modern research is rehabilitating him. The joy of sharing, a proximate behavioural set of motivation, is typical for our species. Notwithstanding expectations of economic and status gain this biopsychologically rooted tendency most likely is the engine driving the systems of do ut des, so marvellously developed in our species.

VOLUME 77, 2014 issue 2


Bone mineral density in children from anthropological and clinical sciences: a review
Bernadette M. Manifold

Bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent topic of discussion in the clinical literature in relation to the bone health of both adults and children. However, in archaeological and/ or anthropological studies the role of BMD is often cited as a possible factor in the poor skeletal preservation which can lead to an under-representation of juvenile skeletal remains. During skeletal development and growth throughout childhood and adolescence changes take place in both the size and shape of bones and these changes also result in the increasing of mineral content. BMD can be affected by many factors, which include, age, genetics, sexual maturation, amount of physical activity and dietary calcium. This paper aims to review the clinical and anthropological literature on BMD and discuss the numerous methods of measurement and how the availability of certain methods such as Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can influence the study of bone density in archaeological skeletal collections and also the future potential for forensic anthropological studies.

Mycolic acids as markers of osseous tuberculosis in the Neolithic skeleton from Kujawy region (central Poland)
Beata Borowska-Strugińska, Magdalena Druszczyńska, Wiesław Lorkiewicz, Rafał Szewczyk, Elżbieta Żądzińska

The subject of analysis is the male skeleton from a double burial of the Globular Amphora Culture, derived from the Neolithic site at Brześć Kujawski in Kujawy region (central Poland). Within the spine of the individual advanced lesions are observed (destruction of the vertebral bodies, symptoms of the periostitis in the thoracic region) which are characteristic of skeletal tuberculosis. To check whether the observed morphological changes resulted from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the bone material was tested positively for the presence of mycolic acids, the specific components of the cell wall of pathogenic M.tb bacilli, by mass spectrometry.

Non-metric dental traits in human skeletal remains from Transcaucasian populations: phylogenetic and diachronic evidence
Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan

The aim of the study is the assessment of biological distance between populations from Transcaucasia on the basis of the frequency of dental morphological traits. It is well known that these traits are characterised by a high inter-population differentiation, low sexual dimorphism, and their recording is loaded by relatively small intra and inter observer error. The dental morphological traits are successfully used in the description and explanation of the microevolutionary and ethnogenetic processes. This paper presents the results of the odontological differentiation of human populations from Transcaucasia. The comparative analysis was carried out on the basis of 12 groups. From the obtained results, we can draw the following conclusions: The populations of Armenian Highland and Georgia can be differentiated as far as the frequency of dental morphological traits are concerned. They also do not exhibit similar intragroup variability. Biocultural diversity of ancient Transcaucasian populations has not been studied extensively; therefore, delineating some of the patterns of phenotypic variation may be useful for understanding their ongoing evolution.

Variation in foramina transversaria of human cervical vertebrae in the medieval population from Sypniewo (Poland)
Barbara Kwiatkowska, Jacek Szczurowski, Dariusz Nowakowski

Since the foramina provide important reference points to radiologists and surgeons, and because their shape and size may affect the blood supply to the cerebellum and the brainstem, the knowledge of the variation of foramina transversaria is essential from the medical point of view. The variation in the number, size and shape of foramina transversaria was studied based on 129 skeletons (68 male, 61 female, total of 1065 foramina) from the environs of Sypniewo. In both sexes single foramina were the most frequent (ca. 70%); in females no double foramina were observed, while triple foramina appeared only twice. In males double foramina formed ca. 40% and triple foramina were very rare. The shape and size of foramina depended to the same extent on the position of the vertebra and on the body side.

Preliminary investigations of the bioarchaeology of Medieval Giecz (XI-XII c.): examples of trauma and stress
Amanda M. Agnew, Hedy M. Justus

Human skeletal remains from past populations are an invaluable source to objectively study biological history. The combined biological and cultural assessment of bioarchaeology offers a unique perspective on the adaptation of people to their environment. This study summarizes a portion of ongoing work to decipher trends related to health and lifestyle in early medieval (XI-XII c.) Giecz, Poland. The skeletal assemblage from Giecz, the “Giecz Collection”, represents a community positioned at a major center of political, economic, and religious power during this important time in Polish history. Non-violent traumatic injuries were investigated to elucidate trends related to possible types and rigor of activities and linear femoral growth trends were analyzed to assess patterns of stress. Preliminary results suggest that all members of the community (men, women, and adolescents) contributed to a lifestyle characterized by repetitive hard-work. Furthermore, it appears that most individuals suffered from health insults negatively affecting their development and perhaps their mortality.

Relationship of social and lifestyle factors with central fat distribution expressed by the aggregate fat distribution index
Agnieszka Suder, Andrzej Sokołowski

Abdominal obesity is caused by several factors and the explanation of the level of its variability also depends on anthropometric indexes applied for its assessment. The aim was to determine the degree of explanation of the abdominal adiposity variation, presented by the aggregate fat distribution index (AFDI), through the socio-economic status and lifestyle.

Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a sample of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. A full model was created using a stepwise backward regression with the social and lifestyle data as independent variables and the AFDI as a dependent variable. The AFDI was created by unitarization applied to selected characteristics of fat distribution which were transformed into [0,1] interval (without measurement unit) and then added and averaged to form a composite index.

The highest autonomous influence on AFDI is ascribed to age (b=0.2456 p=0.000), level of motor fitness (b=-0.2392 p=0.000), leisure time physical activity (b=-0.1353 p=0.000) and being born in a rural area (b=0.1300 p=0.000). The variables explain 17% (R2=0.1667) of the variation of the central fat distribution.

Variation of the abdominal adiposity was explained with the use of AFDI at the level close to the commonly applied indexes.


Variation of human hairiness: a possible adaptation to solar radiation and melanin
Amrita Dhugga, Maciej Henneberg, Jaliya Kumaratilake

Many theories have been advanced to explain human hairlessness, however, there is no consensus. This study of 76 males observed that skin reflectance measuring skin colouration and melanin pigmentation correlated with hair size and follicle density. Individuals with a greater concentration of melanin within the superficial layer of the skin had a lower follicle density and smaller sizes of hairs. In contrast, individuals with a lower melanin concentration and lighter skin colour had a full range of hairiness. This leads to the suggestion that over the course of human evolution, high concentrations of melanin in consistently exposed to ultraviolet radiation areas developed first and that hair loss was a consequence of competition in the skin between melanin production and hair growth. Darker pigmented skin and lower follicle density are significantly correlated (R2= 0.283; p<0.05). Individuals with darker skin had a mean of 4.91 follicles per cm2 whereas those with lighter skin reflectance had 11.20 follicles per cm2. This suggests that increased concentrations of melanin in the basal layer of the epidermis may limit hairiness by negatively influencing the skin’s ability to produce hair.

Life table analysis of a small sample of Santal population living in a rural locality of West Bengal, India
Arupendra Mozumdar, Bhubon Mohan Das, Subrata K. Roy

Life table calculation of small populations, especially of marginal populations, is difficult due to a small number of death records and lack of a systematic birth and death registry. The present study aimed to calculate a life table of a small sample of Santal population from Beliatore area of the Bankura district, West Bengal, India, using the recall method. The data on birth and death events were collected using house-to-house interviewing and cross-checking the data with reference to the significant events of the area and the family. The life table was calculated from age specific death rate of a closed population retrospectively estimated for 10 years. The calculated life expectancy at birth of the study population was 63.9 years with a standard error of 3.15 years. The finding agrees with the life expectancy of the other larger populations of the region, although calculated using conventional methods. The method needs to be evaluated to get the optimum number of death events required for calculating the life table with an acceptable error level. The study will be helpful for comparisons of overall health status of small populations with respect to time and space.

Tooth development in human evolution and bioarchaeology
Elżbieta Żądzińska

Book review: Hillson S. 2014. Tooth development in human evolution and bioarchaeology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 307. pp. ISBN: 978-1-107-01133-5

VOLUME 77, 2014 issue 1


Obesity – a natural consequence of human evolution
Maciej Henneberg, James Grantham

Obesity is considered a major epidemic of the 21st century. In developed countries, about 1/3 of adults are obese and another 1/3 overweight according to the oversimplified measure – the Body Mass Index. More precise indicators of adiposity: waist circumference, skinfolds, underwater weighing and absorptiometry indicate similar levels of fatness. Obesity per se does not necessarily lead to pathological states, nor to premature mortality. Recent results of large sample studies indicate that amore than 1/3 of people classified as obese by fatness indices are physiologically normal. Others, however, suffer from a number of pathological conditions, common among them being the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
The classical explanation for increasing obesity is the positive energy balance – too much food intake and too little exercise. It seems, however, that this explanation is too simplistic. In societies, and in families, exposed to overeating and lazy lifestyles, about 1/3 of individuals have normal body mass and low levels of fatness, while others become obese. There is, therefore, individual variation in propensity for obesity. We have identified two specific variables differentiating fatness. People who have large lean trunk frames – large volumes of abdominal cavities and thus large gastrointestinal tracts – put on more subcutaneous fat than those with smaller trunk frames (Henneberg and Ulijaszek 2010). This may be a result of larger volumes of food required for antral extension to release ghrelin, or larger surface area of small intestines for food absorption. The second variable are concentrations of Alanine Transaminase, an enzyme responsible for conversion of an amino acid to a carbon skeleton that can be used in fat synthesis. Our study of 46000 young Swiss males (Henneberg, Rühli, Gruber & Woitek 2011) found consistent correlation between levels of Alanine Transaminase and body weight in groups of normal body mass individuals, overweight individuals and moderately obese individuals. Coupling this finding with the fact that among vegetarians, even those living in North America with overabundance of food and low levels of exercise, obesity and overweight are much less common than among non-vegetarians, we have now hypothesized that the increased obesity of modern affluent societies is a result of consumption of animal protein when energy needs are already covered by carbohydrates and fat consumed concurrently. Until the advent of agriculture, humans relied on consumption of a variety of terrestrial and aquatic animals supplemented by relatively small amounts of plant foods. In this situation our bodies became adapted to use proteins as a source of energy, and became efficient at storing occasional surpluses of amino acids by their deamination and conversion to fats. In the modern diets carbohydrates are abundant and provide, together with fats, energy required by human bodies, proteins after deamination are efficiently converted to fats. When new types of crops are introduced to mass production of cheap foods our bodies may not be able to react correctly to all their contents and some of the ingredients may cause additional fatness. An example of widespread recent introduction of industrially processed soybean products that correlates with prevalence of obesity across countries of the world is discussed.

Globalization and children's Diets: the case of Maya of Mexico and Central America
Barry Bogin, Hugo Azcorra, Hannah Wilson, Adriana Vázquez-Vázquez, María Luisa Avila, María Teresa Castillo Burguete, Inês Varela-Silva, Federico Dickinson

Globalization is, in part, an economic force to bring about a closer integration of national economies. Globalization is also a biological, social and ideological process of change. Globalization results in powerful multinational corporations imposing their products on new markets. Food globalization brings about nutritional transitions, the most common being a shift from a locally-grown diet with minimally refined foods, to the modern diet of highly processed foods, high in saturated fat, animal products and sugar, and low in fiber. This paper will examine the influences of food globalization using the Maya of Mexico as a case study. The Maya people of Mexico are a poignant case. Maya health and culture has deteriorated as a result, with highly processed foods affecting physical growth and health of Maya children and their families. The case of the Maya is not isolated and we must come to terms with food globalization if we are to translate research into better child health and well-being.

Association of FTO gene with obesity in Polish schoolchildren
Aneta Sitek, Iwona Rosset, Dominik Strapagiel, Małgorzata Majewska, Lidia Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Elżbieta Żądzińska

The goal of the study was verification of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms as significant risk factors of obesity in the population of Polish children. Body mass index (BMI) and DNA were evaluated, where DNA was extracted from saliva, collected from 213 children at the age of 6 – 13 years.

DNA was genotyped by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and HRM (high resolution melting) techniques, as well as by direct sequencing. Three (3) FTO polymorphisms were identified: rs9939609, rs9926289 and rs76804286, the last polymorphism located between the first two.

For the first time, absolute linkage disequilibrium (LD) of FTO gene rs9939609 and rs9926289 polymorphisms was confirmed in data for the Polish population (D' = 1, r2 = 1). The lack of a complete dependence among the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FTO gene was a consequence of the concurrence of homozygotes with minor alleles A of rs9939609 + rs9926289 of FTO (AA + AA) with major alleles of rs76804286 (GG).

A case-control association analysis for BMI in obese children (n = 51), as compared to normal-weight children (n = 162), was based on the effects of genotypes homozygous for the minor alleles of the studied SNPs in recessive and codominant inheritance models (assuming an independent effect of each genotype).

A comparison of children with normal BMI with obese children indicate a strong co-dominant effect of a genotype in homozygotes of minor alleles (AA + AA) of completely linked rs9939609 + rs9926289 (OR at age 8.89 ± 1.54 years = 4.87, 95% CI 1.81–13.12, p = 0.002).

An almost five-fold increase of obesity risk in the examined children indicates that the genetic factors, associated with excessive body weight gain, exert stronger effects in the early period of ontogenetic development vs. puberty and adulthood. The role of genetic factors in predisposing to obesity declines with age.

Effect of elevated physical activity on changes in body composition and subcutaneous fat distribution in boys aged 10 to 16 years: a longitudinal study
Anna Pastuszak, Joanna Lewandowska, Krzysztof Buśko

The study is aimed at evaluation of the effect of regular physical activity on total and subcutaneous body fat and its distribution in boys aged 10 to 16 years. A three-year longitudinal study was carried out in order to monitor physical development in 237 boys from sports schools and regular schools in Warsaw, Poland. The boys were selected so that their rate of puberty changes was similar based on evaluation of voice and facial hair. The authors measured 5 skinfolds in the following sites: triceps, calf, subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds. The percentage fraction of total body fat in body mass was measured by means of Tanita TBF 300 electronic body composition analyser. A limb fat to trunk fat ratio (LF/TF) was also calculated in order to evaluate the type of distribution of subcutaneous fat in boys and monitor its changes as affected by regular high physical activity throughout puberty. Lower total body fat and subcutaneous fat in boys from sports schools was the effect of considerably higher physical activity. It was demonstrated that with some minimal values of total body fat and subcutaneous fat, physical activity did not cause a reduction in body fat. It was found that elevated physical activity in boys is conducive to development of a more limb-oriented (peripheral) fatness, which is more favourable to human health.

Association of menopausal symptoms with obesity in Slovak women
Lenka Luptáková, Daniela Siváková, Veronika Čerňanová, Marta Cvíčelová, Zuzana Danková

A lot of midlife women experience a great deal of menopausal symptoms. Their frequency within a given population may vary and depend on several factors such as age, menopausal status, health factors, including obesity.

This study aims to investigate the incidence of menopausal symptoms among obese and non-obese midlife women, and to evaluate contribution of obesity as predisposing factor for menopausal symptoms to their manifestation.

The studied cohort consisted of 297 women ranging from 39 to 59 years of age. Among them there were 63 women with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and of 39 women with abdominal obesity (waist to hip ratio, WHR > 0.89). Women were recruited from the western and middle parts of Slovakia. All participants completed a menopause-specific questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken using the standard anthropometric techniques. All statistical computations were performed by the SPSS 17.0 software programme (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL).

Stepwise logistic regression analysis demonstrated that increase in facial hair was influenced by age (p<0.001) and obesity (p=0.015). Low backache was influenced by WHR (p=0.031), obesity (p=0.008) and cardiovascular disease (p=0.024). The significant impact of BMI was recorded on the involuntary urination (p=0.002). The menopausal symptom „more clumsy then usual“ was influenced by marital status (p=0.044), hypertension (p=0.021) and the presence of cardiovascular disease (p=0.023). We investigated the effect of menopausal status (p=0.010) and abdominal obesity (p=0.035) on the loss of sexual interest.

Herein we present evidence that obesity could be involved in menopausal symptomatology among Slovak midlife women. We demonstrate that obese women have a higher susceptibility to increase in facial hair and backache, and women with abdominal obesity to loss of sexual interest.

The variability of body composition characteristics in pre- and postmenopausal women from Slovakia
Zuzana Danková, Daniela Siváková, Lenka Luptáková, Marta Cvíčelová, Veronika Čerňanová

Various changes in body composition and body fat distribution are accompaniments of biological ageing, presented mostly in the middle age and significantly notable during the menopause transition.

This study aimed to examine the effect of menopausal status on body composition characteristics in 368 apparently healthy women aged 38 - 61 years. Bioelectrical parameters were measured with a bioimpedance monofrequency analyser (BIA 101) and bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA) was used to analyse tissue electric properties. Data dealing with menopausal status and symptoms as well as life style variables were obtained by the Menopause specific questionnaire.

Statistical analysis adjusted for age did not show differences either in the body composition characteristics or in the nutrition and obesity indices between pre- and post-menopausal women. Regression analyses pointed on statistically significant effect (p < 0.05) of physical exercise on Xc (B = 2.353), FM % (B = -1.746) and MM % (B = 1.201), of hypertension on R (B = -22.381), FM % (B = 4.468), MM % (B = -2.306), of smoking on Xc (B = 1.835), FM % (B = -1.227), MM % (B = 0.767), of muscle and joint ache on the FM % (B = 1.923) and on MM % (B = -1.061). The age had impact on Xc (B = -13.468) and on the phase angle (B = -1.320).

To conclude, in our study group of pre- and postmenopausal Slovak women, age, health and life style factors seem to have more important effect on the body composition characteristics than menopausal status alone.

Is the secular trend reflected in early stages of human ontogenesis?
Zygmunt Domagała, Paweł Dąbrowski, Michał Porwolik, Krystian Porwolik, Bohdan Gworys

There are a limited number of studies on secular changes in the neonatal period, and the majority of them concern research related to childhood and puberty

The objective of our study was to carry out a comparative analysis of body weight and length at birth in neonates born in Wrocław in subsequent decades since 1950 to find out if these parameters are subject to secular trend, and what values they attained during the studied period of 50 years.

The study was carried out in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and in 2000 to analyse changes in body length, body weight and Rohrer index over time. The sample studied consisted of 7510 neonates, 3882 males and 3628 females, born in Wroclaw. Secular changes were tested using one-way variance analysis. The values of F statistics were compared to the critical values of the F Snedecor distribution. Changes in the features of neonates in subsequent study years were analysed using the modified z-score. Data were normalised for standard deviation in decade increments.

Results demonstrated very slight, though statistically insignificant increase in body weight at birth. Over the 50-year period the mean body weight of neonates was in the range of 3.3-3.4 kg, regardless of sex.

Results demonstrated very slight, though statistically insignificant increase in body weight at birth. Over the 50-year period the mean body weight of neonates was in the range of 3.3-3.4 kg, regardless of sex. The acceleration in the body length of neonates caused a gradual decrease in the mean values of the Rohrer index.

No secular trend in body weight was found in Wrocław neonates over the 50-year period between 1950 and 2000 With regard to body length at birth, four waves of deceleration and acceleration were found: period 1 (1950s): deceleration in the increase of the analysed body parameters of neonates; period 2 (1960s): acceleration in neonates’ growth; period 3 (1970s and 1980s): economic crisis and political transformations in Poland; this is reflected by the stable mean values of body dimensions in neonates. The secular trend clearly decelerated, and period 4 (1990s and 2000) - very intense acceleration in both body weight and length and the Rohrer index.

Violence indicators in Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy, Argentina: the regional development period from a regional perspective
Verónica Seldes, Florencia Natalia Botta

Quebrada de Humahuaca (Jujuy, Argentina) has been extensively studied by archaeologists. Studies have been focused mainly on the Late Regional Development Period (1250 - 1430 AD), which has been defined as a time of social conflict. In this paper we present bioarchaeological evidence of interpersonal violence related trauma found in populations of the region. A sample of 153 skulls from three sites of Quebrada de Humahuaca: Los Amarillos, La Huerta and Yacoraite, were analyzed, differentiating antemortem and perimortem fractures, cut marks as well as the presence of trophy skulls.

The results were subjected to nonparametric statistical tests, in order to assess inter-site level differences, sex and age distribution.

Bioarchaeological analysis determined a high frequency of interpersonal violence related trauma. Most registered injuries belonged to the antemortem type, demonstrating that the individuals of those events that had generated said cranial trauma had managed to survive. Interpersonal violence affected both men and women the same, registering no differences in neither sex nor age group, however evidence of trauma varied geographically from site to site. Statistical calculations reveal that the Yacoraite site is where the highest frequency of trauma was found, while La Huerta is where the highest level of trophy skulls was registered.


VOLUME 76, 2013 issue 2


Pregnancy outcome and delivery in Spanish and migrant women: an ecological approach
Cristina Bernis, Carlos Varea

For most of our history as a species, maternal constraint was the main environmental factor affecting biological status at birth. However, the great increase in medical intervention in the 20th Century coincided first with an extraordinary reduction in perinatal mortality and later with an increase in preterm and low birth-weight babies. Herein, we analyze these temporary trends in neonate biology in Spain, ac- cording to early viability (1980–2010) and ethnic variability (1996–2010). The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction between maternal and medical environmental constraints affecting the biology of birth and to understand the observed ethnic differences and secular trends. All single births in Spain between 1980 and 2010 are included. Following descriptive analysis, logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the effect of secular trends, mode of delivery and mother’s origin on birth outcome after adjustment for other maternal bio-cultural factors. Results highlighted that mean birth weight decreased and prematurity increased in still births, live births and deaths before one day. In regard to ethnic differences, while there were no secular trends in weight by gestational age in the Spanish newborns, there was an increase among the newborns of foreign mothers. Spanish mothers experienced an increasing and higher frequency of low birth weight, while foreigners had an increasing and higher frequency of prematurity. Both groups, however, shared temporal reduction in gestational age, and although this was less marked in foreigners, it suggests a common trend related to medical care and increasing obstetric interventions.

Determinants of gestational weight gain with special respect to maternal stature height and its consequences for newborn vital parameters
Sylvia Kirchengast, Beda Hartmann

An appropriate gestational weight gain is an essential factor of female reproductive success because gestational weight gain influences newborn size but also maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. This paper aims to analyze the impact of maternal somatic factors, first of all maternal stature height, on gestational weight gain. Additionally the effect of gestational weight gain and other maternal somatic factors on newborn size was tested. In the present study the data of 12,661 term birth which have taken place in Vienna, Austria were analyzed. Maternal and newborn somatometric features such as prepregnancy weight status, maternal stature height, birth weight, birth length and head circumference were included. Nearly 65% of the women gained appropriate weight during pregnancy. About 20% showed an excessive, less than 15% an inappropriate gestational weight gain. Gestational weight gain was influenced significantly by prepregnancy weight status, maternal stature height, maternal age, but also nicotine consumption during pregnancy.A significant association between gestational weight gain and newborn somatometrics could be stated. It could be shown that gestational weight gain is influenced by several maternal somatic but also behavioral factors. Newborn size is associated with gestational weight gain.

Body composition and basal metabolic rate in pregnant women
Shaila Bhardwaj, Deepali Verma, Satwanti Kapoor

Pregnancy, a milieu of physiological and metabolic adaptation, is associated with enhanced basal metabolic rate by alteration in maternal tissue and metabolism to ensure foetal growth and development. A cross-sectional study of Indian Baniya females was conducted to assess the relationship between basal metabolic rate and body composition during pregnancy. The 20–40 year old female subjects were broadly categorized in two groups; pregnant (N=198) and non-pregnant (N=35). Anthropometric measurements of each subject included height and weight, with basal metabolic rate (BMR), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW) assayed by bioelectric impedance body composition analyzer. The descriptive statistics revealed pregnancy associated weight gain, increased FFM, FM, TBW and BMR with marked changes during the second and third trimesters. Although multiple linear regression analysis showed substantial change in BMR due to both FM and FFM, fat-free mass contributed to a much lesser extent. Pregnancy,as an anabolic phase of the female reproductive cycle, is associated with metabolic flexibility which alters the relationship between body composition and BMR. These findings however require further validation in longitudinal design studies.

Relationship between the type and weight of placenta and birth weight of newborns in twin pregnancy
Małgorzata Waszak, Krystyna Cieślik, Joanna Kempiak, Grzegorz Bręborowicz, Janusz Gadzinowski

Relationship between the type and size of placenta and the development of twin fetuses is still discussed in perinatology. To answer the question whether the final weight and size of placenta can be a limiting factor of fetal growth in twin pregnancy. 1261 pairs of twins born between 22 and 41 weeks of pregnancy at Perinatology and Gynecology Department of Poznan University of Medical Sciences between 2003 and 2009. Histological examination of secundines, placental weights, and birth weight of twins were evaluated and newborn condition was assessed by Apgar score. Statistical evaluation was performed with the analysis of variance to assess the placental growth related to the gestational age and the placental-fetal weight ratio in relation to the clinical condition of newborns. We observed an increase in the growth of placenta until 38 weeks of pregnancy in twins sharing one placenta and until 36 weeks of pregnancy in twins with two separate placentas. Between 22 and 35 weeks of pregnancy, the placental-fetal weight ratio in twins sharing one placenta was higher than placental-fetal weight ratio in twins with two separate placentas. Twins with the single placenta were smaller than twins with two separate placentas. The placental-fetal weight ratio was comparable in all twins at term of delivery and was associated with the clinical condition of newborns. Newborns who received Apgar score 8 or more at 10 minute post delivery had a lower ratio than neonates with the Apgar score equal or lower than 7 (p≤0.01). Though the latter twins had both smaller placentas and smaller birth weights, their placental-fetal weight ratios were significantly higher compared to ratios of twins born in good condition. The growth of placenta decreases before the term of pregnancy but does not limit fetal birth weight in twin pregnancy.

Body composition in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome
Lina Zabulienė, Jurgita Urboniene, Janina Tutkuvienė

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrine and metabolic disorders among reproductive age women. PCOS is related to changes of body size, shape and composition. The anthropometric somatotype is the quantitative description of individual's body shape and composition expressed in terms of three components: endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy. Somatotype in PCOS has never been studied. The objective of the study was to evaluate the peculiarities of body shape and composition and assess their relations with metabolic parameters in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The study was carried out at the Department of Anatomy, Histology and Anthropology (Vilnius University). Study population included women aged 20–35. The standard anthropometric instruments and methods were used. J. Matiegka’s equations were used to calculate mass of skeleton, skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue, muscles and internal organs. Heath - Carter’s somatotypes were computed. Participants were tested for glucose, insulin, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, lipids. We analysed data of 120 women. The women’s mean age was 27.30 ± 3.68 years. Lean women with PCOS had greater skeletal mass by 0.47 kg (p<0.05, Cohen’s d=1.14), greater skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass by 2.79 kg (p<0.05, Cohen’s d=6.07) and lower muscle mass by 1.47 kg (p<0.05, Cohen’s d=2.84) compared to the controls (p<0.05). Mean PCOS somatotype was 4.96–4.38–3.00 (SD 1.50–1.26–1.11) characterizing women with PCOS as mesomorphic endomorphs. Healthy women presented endomorphic mesomorphs. Skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue and somatotype components (endomorphy and mesomorphy) were positively correlated with insulin and HOMA-IR in PCOS patients.Lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome presented mesomorphic endomorphs somatotype and had higher skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, but less muscle mass compared to lean healthy women. Skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue positively correlated with insulin and HOMA-IR in lean PCOS women.

Somatic, mood, and vasomotor symptoms at midlife in relation to family structure, and household workloads in Sylhet, Bangladesh
Taniya Sharmeen, Lynnette Leidy Sievert, Khurshida Begum, Osul Chowdhury, Shanthi Muttukrishna, Gillian R. Bentley

The purpose of this study was to test whether the frequencies of vasomotor, somatic, and emotional symptoms at midlife were associated with household composition or workloads. Patrilocal family arrangements are common in Bangladesh and, since mothers-in-law hold a position of power vis-à-vis their daughters-in-law, we hypothesized that living with a mother-in-law would increase the likelihood of symptoms at midlife, while living with a daughter-in-law would decrease likelihood of symptoms. We also hypothesised that women with high levels of household workloads would be more likely to report symptoms associated with midlife. Women aged 35–59 living in Sylhet, Bangladesh, (n=157) participated in interviews and anthropometric measures. Symptom frequencies during the past two weeks were collected. Household workloads were computed as minutes spent in housework, caring for dependents, and cooking. Daily values were multiplied by times per week the activity was carried out. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between family composition, workloads, and symptoms. Dizzy spells, nervous tension, lack of energy, aches/stiffness in joints, and trouble sleeping were most frequent. Hot flashes were reported by 46% of participants. Women spent more hours caring for dependents than cooking or doing housework. The likelihood of hot flashes increased with time spent in housework and cooking, with daughters in the household, and with chewing betel nut. Daughters-in-law in the household decreased the likelihood of hot flashes. The likelihood of nervous tension increased with peri-menopausal status, stress, and sons in the household, and decreased with more hours spent caring for dependents. The frequency of somatic symptoms and depressed mood exceeded the frequency of hot flashes. Household composition and workloads were more important than menopausal status in explaining variation in symptom frequencies. After controlling for other variables, the presence of mothers-in-law did not increase the likelihood of reporting symptoms at midlife; however, the presence of a daughter-in-law reduced the likelihood of hot flashes, perhaps because of fewer hours spent on housework and cooking.

The reproductive parameters, lifestyle and health factors in relation to physiological menopausal symptoms in Slovak women
Lenka Luptáková, Daniela Siváková, Alexandra Michnová, Veronika Čerňanová, Marta Cvíčelová, Zuzana Danková

Menopause is associated with various physiological symptoms which can be related to the most common health problems in menopausal women and a decrease in their quality of life. Determinants of experiencing menopausal symptoms are complex because they include reproductive, environmental, lifestyle and social factors. The aim of this study is to assess whether selected reproductive, lifestyle and health factors are associated with the occurence of hot flushes, night sweats, palpitations, dizzy spells and/or pins and needles in the hands and feet. A total of 346 women aged between 39 and 59 years living in Slovakia were recruited for this cross-sectional survey. Data on menopausal symptoms and potential confounders were collected by questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis revealed an independent effect of peri-/postmenopausal status and depressed mood on the manifestation of hot flushes. Analysis results for night sweats were significant for age, depressed mood and current smoking at p<0.05 while, of all input parameters, only age and depressed mood were significant predictors of palpitations. Logistic regression also revealed the effect of sport and depressed mood on dizzy spells. Depressed women, (B=0.677) and those who did not participate in sporting activities (B=–0.969) suffered more often from dizzy spells. Pins and needles in hands and feet were influenced by peri-/post- menopausal status (B=1.036), by higher numbers of pregnancy (B=0.260) and depressed mood (B=0.505). Potentially modifiable factors, such as current smoking, lack of sport, depressed mood and the number of pregnancies can predispose a woman to a higher prevalence of some of these physiological menopausal symptoms.

Assessing social status effects on age of primiparity in Polish women
Maria Kaczmarek

The maternal first birth age is an important predictor of the size, composition and future growth of population and a wide range of birth outcomes such as birth weight, multiple births, and birth defects. This paper aims to test the hypothesis that age of mothers at first childbirth depends on their socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviour. The examined sample emanated from the WOMID national cross-sectional survey on middle-aged women’s health and life quality in 2000–2004, and it consisted of 1,924 parous women born between 1953 and 1969 and aged 35–45 years at the time of examination. Social status was defined by place of residence, educational attainment, employment status, financial strain, and lifestyle behaviour by physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, weight status and self-reported health status. The association of age at first childbirth with social status characteristics was adjusted to marital status and use of oral contraceptives (OCU). Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to cluster studied variables. Predictive factors for first childbirth timing were determined by a factorial design with the multi-way ANOVA and their interactions. The odds ratios of the factors associated with later maternal age at first childbirth were evaluated through multiple logistic regressions with backward elimination. Statistics for this analysis were performed using STATISTICA software, Version 10.0 (StatSoft Polska). It was found that large city residents with higher educational levels, currently employed and without financial strain, non-smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, participating in physical exercises and maintaining proper weight and oral contraceptive users were more likely to delay their first childbirth over the median age of 23 years, than their counterparts. The most important predictors of the maternal first birth age were: edu- cational attainment (F=19.8; p<0.001), place of residence (F=4.2 p<0.021), employment status (F=3.7; p=0.026), tobacco use (F=5.0; p=0.007), and use of oral contraceptives (F=3.6; p=0.033),. They explained 15% of the total variance in the maternal first birth age. The probability of delivering first child at more advanced age was almost two times higher for large-city residents than for rural counterparts (OR=1.58); five times higher for women with better educational qualifications as compared to primarily educated peers (OR=5.24). Currently employed women were 1.5 times more likely to be primiparous at more advanced age than the unemployed counterparts (OR=1.5). Current smokers were 1.3 times less likely than their never smoked peers to deliver a child at older age (OR=0.75). The OC users were 1.5 times more likely for delaying childbirth than never OCU counterparts. The study have revealed key sets of social predictor variables for maternal first birth age. They include: place of residence, educational attainment and employment status, use of oral contraceptives and smoking habit. Women’s education appears to be the most predictive factor for entering the motherhood.

Forensic Microscopy for Skeletal Tissues: Methods and Protocols
Elżbieta Żądzińska

VOLUME 76, 2013 issue 1


Diet and society in Poland before the state: stable isotope evidence from a Wielbark population (2nd c. AD)
Laurie J. Reitsema, Tomasz Kozłowski

The 1st-4th c. AD Wielbark culture of Eastern Europe is relatively understudied bioarchaeologically due to the fragmentary nature of its cemeteries. Here, we report the first stable isotope analysis of Wielbark diet using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures from both collagen and carbonate of 30 individuals from Rogowo, a 2nd c. Wielbark cemetery in North-Central Poland. Diet at Rogowo was primarily based on terrestrial foods and included millet, a C4 plant cultivated by many Slavic populations in Europe. Anadromous fish likely supplemented the diet, which is clarified when considering collagen and carbonate data in tandem. Stable isotope differences between the sexes indicate that men and women may have consumed different foods, although there is a possibility that women immigrated to Rogowo from an isotopically different region of Europe. No significant differences are noted in δ13C or δ15N of women with and without grave goods, suggesting little social differentiation within the Wielbark culture, at least in terms of daily food access. Reconstructing human diet in Europe through stable isotope analysis is problematic because of the relative isotopic homogeneity in this region of the world. This study further demonstrates the utility of using both carbonate and collagen stable isotope data in tandem to reconstruct past European diet.

Key words: paleodiet, Roman era, Wielbark culture, isotopes, Poland

Differential preservation of children’s bones and teeth recovered from early medieval cemeteries: possible influences for the forensic recovery of non-adult skeletal remains
Bernadette M Manifold

The skeletal preservation of 421 non-adult skeletons from four early medieval sites in England, Scotland and Wales were compared to assess whether geographical location and geology have an impact on overall bone preservation of children’s remains in the burial environment. Skeletons were examined from the cemeteries of Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford in England and Llandough in Wales. The bone preservation was examined using three preservational indices: Anatomical preservation index (API), Qualitative preservation index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). A similar pattern existed across all the sites with regard to what bones are preserved, bones with relatively high density, such as the temporal bone of the skull, the long bones of the upper and lower limbs tend to be abundant in the samples, with the more small and fragile bones, such as the facial bones tending to be less well represented either as a result of low bone density or due to loss at excavation. The study of the dental elements also revealed a pattern with regard to what is preserved, with high numbers of molars and incisors found. This may be related to both the size and number of roots; but also the position in the mouth which may offer protection against loss. A difference in preservation was observed between the sites and the classes of preservation, particularly local differences between the sites of Edix Hill and Great Chesterford. From this study it remains unclear as to the extent the role of geology has on the non-adult skeleton, but the results of this study show that age is not the dominating factor in bone preservation as previously thought.

Key words: bone preservation, deciduous and permanent dentition, under-representation, taphonomy, forensic science, age

Analysis of interaction between nutritional and developmental instability in mediaeval population in Wrocław
Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka, Paweł Dąbrowski, Jacek Szczurowski , Tomasz Staniowski

In this paper, we test the hypothesis that indices of nutritional stress from enamel hypoplasia increase the incidence of indicators of developmental instability in fluctuating asymmetry, even in high social status individuals. The studied material consisted of a medieval sample of 58 skulls from the Wrocław area. Radiographs were taken in postero-anterior (P-A) and base projections. Images were scanned and calibrated by means of MicroStation 95 Academic Edition software, and measurements of the skull images were used to estimate fluctuating asymmetry. The presence of hypoplasia and caries was assessed using standard anthropological methods and all data was statistically analysed. The highest levels of fluctuating asymmetry were observed in the skull base region. Hypoplasia was observed in 40% and caries in 55.5%. Differences were noted in the level of fluctuating asymmetry in relationship to the presence or absence of hypoplasia, where a higher level predisposes individuals to enamel hypoplasia and a decline in buffering capacity, regardless of their socio-economic status.

Key words: fluctuating asymmetry, directional asymmetry, anti-symmetry, enamel hypoplasia, caries, developmental instability

Non-metric dental analysis of a Bronze Age population from the Armenian Plateau
Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan

The aim of this study is to assess the biological distance between populations from the Armenian highland, Georgia, Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia on the basis of the frequency of non-metric dental traits. It is well known that these traits are characterized by high inter-population differentiation, low sexual dimorphism, and their recording is affected by relatively small intra and inter-observer error. These traits are successfully used in the description and explanation of ethno-genetic processes. Comparative analysis was performed on 30 populations, and the frequency of non-metric dental traits in all populations was determined by principal component analysis. Based on our bio-distance results, we suggest there was a degree of genetic proximity among inland populations of the Armenian Plateau and Transcaucasian area at the beginning of the Bronze Age. The Armenian Plateau and Georgian samples and all those from Kalmykia (Pit Grave culture), the Ukraine (Tripolye culture), the Urals (Sintashtinskaya, Timber Grave cultures), the Volga region (Pit Grave, Balanovo, Fatianovo, Potapovsky cultures) and Central Asia (Gonur-Depe) exhibited close affinities. This conclusion is consistent with that reported by other bio-distance studies examining non-metric cranial traits and Armenian Plateau samples.

Key words: Armenian Plateau, Georgia, biological anthropology, archaeology, non-metric dental traits

Navigare necesse est. Possible reconstruction of a maritime-activities related occupation based on the presence of auditory exostoses in an individual from the Roman period city of Iader
Mario Novak, Timka Alihodžić, Mario Šlaus

Large bilateral auditory exostoses were recorded in the skeleton of an adult male buried in the Roman period necropolis of Zadar-Relja (the Roman colony of Iader) in southern Croatia. As the occurrence of auditory exostoses in both past and modern populations has been correlated with prolonged exposure to cold water, the authors propose that during his lifetime this individual performed activities requiring frequent contact with cold water for an extended period of time. Apart from auditory exostoses, this individual also exhibits other pathological changes including pronounced skeletal robustness, benign cortical defects at the insertion of the pectoralis major muscles on both humeri and at the attachment sites of the costo-clavicular ligaments on both clavicles, and vertebral osteoarthritis in the cervical and thoracic vertebrae. The most plausible explanation for all these changes is that this person spent most of his life working aboard a sea vessel as a sailor, boat builder or fisherman, and whose duties included frequent and intensive use of oars. This observation is based on the geographic and climatic location of Zadar, the described skeletal changes, the archaeological context of the site, recovered material artifacts and written historic sources and comparisons with similar studies.

Key words: auditory exostoses, musculoskeletal stress markers, maritime activities, Roman period, Zadar

Multiple anomalies in the atlanto-occipital joint (articulation atlanto-occipitalis) Running Title: The atlanto-occipital joint
Wiesław Lorkiewicz, Elżbieta Żądzińska

Contemporary populations exhibit numerous skeletal anatomical variations and the atlanto-occipital joint (articulation atlanto-occipitalis) is often the location of such variations. A female skeleton dated at 4000 BC and excavated at Meroe in the Sudan provides an example of numerous variations in the basilar skull and cervical vertebrae. These variations consist of the presence of a bilateral atlanto-occipital joint with a third trochanter, a unilateral arcuate atlas foramen and huge axial nutrient foramina. Key words: anatomical anomalies, Sudan, atlanto-occipital joint

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

The emergence of obesity among Australian Aboriginal children
Natalie Phillips, Maciej Henneberg, Nicholas Norgan, Lincoln Schmitt, Caroline Potter, Stanley Ulijaszek

Obesity is of significant and growing concern among Australian Aboriginal children, and is linked to patterns of child growth. To show diverse patterns of growth and obesity emergence among Australian Aboriginal children using historical anthropometric data. Child growth in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) is reanalysed for children aged 2 to 19 years in Australian Aboriginal communities spanning two distinct time periods (the 1950s and 1960s; and the 1990s and 2000s) and six different geographical locations: Yuendumu, Haast’s Bluff, Beswick, Kalumburu, Gerard, and Raukkan. Comparisons of stature and BMI between the earlier and later years of measurement were made, and the proportion of children classified as overweight or obese by the International Obesity Task Force criteria estimated to allow international comparison. Aboriginal children in the 1990s and 2000s are heavier, with higher BMI than those in the 1950s and 1960s, differences in height being less marked. While no children were classified as overweight or obese in the earlier period, 15% of males and 3% of females were classified so in the later period. The data suggests that the period of onset of the epidemic of overweight and obesity among rural Australian Aboriginal children was likely to have been between the 1960s and 1980s.

Keywords: overweight, body mass index, stature, Australia, aboriginal children

Overall burden of under-nutrition measured by a “Composite Index” in rural pre-school children in Purba Midnapore, West Bengal, India
Atanu Acharya, Gopal Chandra Mandal, Kaushik Bose

Obesity is of significant and growing coImplemented/malnutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in India. To counteract this problem, a nutrition supplementation programme has been operating under the Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) scheme in India since 1975. Recently, the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) has been implemented to measure the seriousness and severity of overall under-nutrition in a population. Since this index presents a more complete picture than the previous three conventional measures, CIAF is utililized in this study which focuses on the overall burden of under-nutrition determination in pre-school children in East-Midnapur, West Bengal, India.
Our study was conducted in 10 Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) centres, commonly known as “Anganwadi”, in the villages of the Argoal Gram Panchayat at Patashpur- II block in the Purba Medinipur district,of West Bengal, India. The total sample of 225 Bengalee ethnic children aged between 3 and 6 years was composed of.115 girls and 110 boys.
The overall age and gender-combined prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting recorded was 30.7%, 42.7% and 12.0%, respectively, and these rates were considered high (30 - 39%), very high (≥ 40%) and high (10 - 14%), respectively. CIAF results revealed the same trend, with 50.2% of these children affected by anthropometric failure, with the prevalence of underweight, wasting and CIAF higher in boys than in girls. This 50.2% CIAF result highlighted that approximately half the study children were undernourished. Since this figure is much higher than that estimated by any of the three conventional indicators,, CIAF has thus proven a far better indicator in assessing the overall burden of under-nutrition in a population. The nutritional status of the children in this study requires serious remedial action.

Key words: under-nutrition, Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure, rural pre-school children, India

Second to fourth digits ratio (2D:4D) and subjective pain experience in tattooing
Sławomir Kozieł, Raja Chakraborty, Aneta Sitek

This aims of this research are to determine if the 2D:4D digit ratio is related to subjective pain experience during tattooing and to examine gender differences therein. The study involved 43 male and 28 female Polish adults recruited from two tattoo salons in Wroclaw and Leszno in Western Poland. These subjects were asked if they felt pain during their tattooing and answers were recorded as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. The ventral surface lengths of the second and fourth digits of each hand were measured, and analysis of variance was performed to assess significant differences in the 2D:4D ratios of right and left hands and two-hand averages between genders and the Yes/ No groups reporting pain experience. Results revealed that although the digit ratios for females had systematically higher values than those in males, differences were not statistically significant. Both sex and subjective pain feeling were significantly associated with 2D:4D ratio in both hands and their average values, while sex and pain experience were independently associated with digit ratio. Subjects who felt pain during tattooing had a significantly lower digit ratio. In conclusion, the study did not support the hypothesis that the lower masculine 2D:4D ratio is associated with a higher pain threshold. Prenatal sex hormonal exposure generating the gender dimorphic 2D:4D index may not predispose the actual feeling of all kinds of pain; in this instance, not in pain associated with tattooing.

Key words: 2D:4D digit ratio, subjective pain, tattoo

The Juvenile Skeleton in Forensic Abuse Investigations
Bernadette M Manifold

VOLUME 75, issue 2, 2012


Detrimental effects of early rural life on blood pressure among urban male migrants in Wroclaw, Poland
Sławomir Kozieł, Anna Lipowicz, Stanley J. Ulijaszek

The purpose of the study was to compare the blood pressure of rural-to-urban migrants and the sedentary population (non-migratory) of the city of Wrocław, Poland. Additionally, the effect of time spent in the rural area on blood pressure was also assessed. The study sample consisted of 2753 males aged 25-75 years, following a medical examination, underwent an interview and anthropometric measurements between 1989-90. Based on the place of origin all males were divided into rural-to-urban migrant inhabitants of Wrocław (N=1222) and sedentary inhabitants of Wrocław (N=921). The percentage of time spent in the rural area [(time spent in rural area/age)*100] was then calculated and was used in analysis. In each age category, the rural-urban migrants were found to be shorter in height. Age, BMI, level of education and time of migration had a significant effect on both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure irrespective of the level of education. It was demonstrated that the time of migration, allowing for age, body size and education level, significantly correlated with blood pressure. The later in time, the males migrated from rural to urban areas, the higher their blood pressure. It was hypothesized that unhealthy behavior could still have continued in a new urban environment, resulting in migrant – sedentary differences in health parameters.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

Perceived health status among middle-aged Polish people in relation to selected demographic and social factors
Maria Kaczmarek, Magdalena Skrzypczak

Self-rated health is an important measure of health status and outcomes and plays a significant role in the quality of life. The main purpose of the study was to estimate selected demographic and socio-economic factors associated with perceived health status among middle-aged Polish people. The sample being studied consisted of 5,776 women and 2,191 men aged 35-65 years, participants of two nation-wide cross-sectional surveys: the survey on middle-aged women’s health and quality of life, WOMID and the survey on men’s health and quality of life, both conducted in 2000-2004. Participants were administered a gender-specific questionnaire on demographic, socio-economic status, lifestyle behaviours and self-rated health. The subjectively evaluated health status was then correlated with sex, age, marital status, place of residence, education level, financial situation, types of leisure time and the tobacco use. Data were processed using uni- and multivariate statistical procedures including the logistic regression models LOGITs and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). All calculations were made using STATISTICA 10.0 data analysis software system. It was found that the perceived health status was associated with women's and men's age, and in women with their menopausal status. Women were likely to evaluate their health significantly worse than men. It was found that marital status, educational attainment and financial well-off were the factors significantly associated perceived health status in both women and men. In concluding remarks it should be stated that health perception of women and men in mid-life is significantly related to their socio-economic status.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

Evaluation of somatic and functional parameters of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in rural women in Poland
Tomasz Ignasiak, Zofia Ignasiak, Ewa Ziółkowska-Łajp, Krystyna Rożek, Teresa Sławińska, Anna Skrzek

The aim of this study was the diagnosis of selected somatic parameters and functional parameters of cardiovascular and respiratory systems of rural women in Poland. The study involved a group of 95 rural women aged 35-60 years, staying in 3-week rehabilitation camps. The two groups of women were selected: younger ( =43 years), which did not exceed 50 years of age (n = 48) and older ( = 53 years) aged 50 years and older (n = 47). The present study examines the measurement of the body height and weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) and functional parameters of cardiovascular and respiratory systems. For the evaluation of cardiovascular parameters, a 6 minute walk test was selected. Before the commencement of the test and in the first minute after it, the pulse and the blood pressure were measured. To assess the functional parameters of the respiratory system, the pattern of flow - volume curve was used. The test was performed with a Jaeger Flowscreen spirometer. The following parameters were determined: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and Tiffeneau index (FEV1 in% VC). Examined rural women were likely to be similar to their urban counterparts. BMI of women was significantly higher than peers. Older rural women are particularly at risk of obesity. Heart rate and blood pressure, when at resting and after exercise, were normal and alike in both in young and older women. As expected, younger women had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. PEF values in younger women were slightly below the normal limit, and in their older peers, this value was significantly below the normal limit.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

The influence of selected environmental factors on the time of natural menopause in women living in the Małopolskie voivodeship
Ewa Szwejser, Krzysztof Szostek

The main objective of the study is to determine which of the chosen environmental factors and selected groups of such factors alter the time of natural menopause in women living in the Małopolska region. Two hundred and thirty two women aged over 40 years were investigated in a cross-sectional survey in Cracow and the surrounding area. Among them 165 women who had undergone natural menopause and had their last bleeding at least 12 month prior to the interview were chosen. To estimate the age at menopause, a retrospective method was used. Univariate and multivariate methods were employed to estimate association of age at natural menopause with factors of interest. Mean age at natural menopause was 50.32 years (SD= 3.82). Among biological and socio-economic factors, only the length of the reproductive period (H=106.07; p=0.000) and the age at the time of the first birth (R=0.18; p=0.020) turned out to be associated with the age at natural menopause in the studied group. The length of the smoking period (R=-0.17; p=0.031), the amount (F=3.25; p=0.04) and frequency of alcohol consumed (H=6.95; p=0.031) were the environmental factors related to the time of menopause. Women who drank more and smoked over longer period of time were likely to experience menopause earlier than their less drinking and shorter smoked counterparts. Three factors taken together, frequency of smoking, alcoholic intake and the age the tobacco addiction started (F=3.87; p=0.050), as well as the consumption of strong alcoholic drinks and the early start of tobacco addiction (F=2.85; p=0.026) were significantly related to the occurrence of natural menopause.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

Writing with non-dominant hand: left-handers perform better with the right hand than right handers with the left
Kristina Laskowski, Maciej Henneberg

Adult volunteers (7 females, 7 males) aged between 19 and 51 years, 7 right-handers and 7 left-handers, were asked to complete re-training writing tasks by using their non-dominant hand over 10 consecutive days. It is possible for adults to learn quickly to write legibly with their non-dominant hand. Left handers have a higher legible score initially although right-handers improve with training more than left-handers. Individual’s performance was unrelated to age and sex in the small sample studied.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

Wiesław Lorkiewicz, Elżbieta Żądzińska

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

VOLUME 75, issue 1, 2012


Effects of psychological stress on skin and hair pigmentation in Polish adolescents
Aneta Sitek, Elżbieta Żądzińska, Iwona Rosset

The effects of psychological stress, gender and age on hair and skin pigmentation levels were evaluated in the reported study. The material included Polish high-school and university students aged 18–22 (in the age range 17.50–22.49). All subjects who had sunbathed or used tanning beds or lamps, skin tanning agents, tanning extenders and/or medical agents affecting skin pigmentation during the 60 days preceding the beginning of the study were excluded. The use of hormonal contraceptives within a month prior to the study was also an excluding factor. Stress levels were evaluated by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in the Polish adaptation, while hair and skin pigmentation levels were assessed with a dermaspectrometer (Cortex Technology®, Denmark, 2007). The study was carried out with the exclusion of the summer period. Skin pigmentation was evaluated in 395 subjects (264 women and 131 men). Hair pigmentation was analyzed in a smaller group of 351 subjects (223 women and 128 men), as some had had their hair dyed within 12 months prior to the study while in some others the hair was too short to be correctly measured.
Regardless of their age, the studied women felt much more stress related to their life situation and were characterized by stronger skin pigmentation than the examined men. No sex differences were identified with regard to hair pigmentation. In the studied period of ontogenesis (18–22 years of age), hair pigmentation levels increased with age, while skin melanization remained stable. Disregarding the effects of age and sex, the level of perceived stress was negatively correlated with skin pigmentation levels; no such relationship was found for hair melanization.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

Late childhood and adolescence growth sensitivity to political transition: the case of South African Cape Coloured schoolchildren during and post-apartheid
Madelief G.B.C. Bertens, Stanley Ulijaszek, Sławomir Kozieł, Maciej Henneberg

South Africa underwent major social and economic change between 1987 and 1995. The release of Nelson Mandela in February 1990 proclaimed an end to the political system of apartheid, and the first freely elected non-White government in 1994 instigated social and economic reforms aimed at alleviating the consequences of apartheid. This paper aims to examine the impact of these socio-economic and political changes on height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in childhood and late adolescence. An analysis was carried out of longitudinal data of 258 urban and rural South African Cape Coloured schoolchildren (6-18 years old) across the transitional periods from apartheid between 1987 and 1990, to this transition between 1991 and 1993, and finally to post-apartheid between 1994 and 1995. The anthropometric measures were standardized into age independent Z-scores. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were conducted to examine the growth in height, weight and BMI across these periods. The results show a significant main effect of measurement periods on height, weight and BMI Z-scores. Across time, the subjects increased in overall size, height, weight and BMI. For all the anthropometric measures there was a significant interaction effect between measurement period and sex, but none between measurement period and SES. The average increase in height, weight and BMI across time differed significantly for girls and boys, the average z-scores being greater in girls than in boys. For boys, there was little difference in height, weight and BMI Z-scores according to SES, and little increase across periods. Girls were generally taller, heavier with greater BMI than boys, and their scores increased across the time periods. High SES girls were taller, heavier and had higher BMI than low SES girls. Across the measurement periods, BMI and weight somewhat converged between the high and low SES girls. In the discussion these differences reflecting social sex distinctions are addressed.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

Longitudinal BMI percentile curves by maturity status of Japanese children
Tsutomu Mino, Robert M. Malina, Koichi Nariyama

The objective of the research was to prepare longitudinal percentile curves for the BMI (kg/m2) relative to time before and after peak height velocity (PHV) in Japanese boys and girls born between 1989 and 1991. Stature and weight were measured in every April from 6.5 to 16.5 years for 283 boys and 480 girls. Age at PHV was estimated by the proportional allotment method. The 50th percentile curves for the BMI of Japanese boys and girls born between 1989 and 1991 were similar to the corresponding curves for Japanese boys and girls born between 1972 and 1974. However, the 97th percentiles of children born between1989 and 1991 were higher and the corresponding 3rd percentiles were lower compared to children born between 1972 and 1974. The differences can be attributed to the influence of early maturing children born between 1989 and 1991 on the 97th percentiles and of late maturing children born between 1989 and 1991 on the 3rd percentiles. The results highlight the need to consider the timing of maturity, in this case, age at PHV, when interpreting the BMI of adolescents.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

Fat pattern of athlete and non-athlete girls during puberty
Julia Pápai, Zsófia Tróznai, Tamás Szabó, Attila Szabó

The study focused on the peculiarities of fat accumulation during maturation. The main purpose of the study was trifold: to detect the alterations in fat gain during breast maturation; to examine fat accumulation after physiological maturation and the influence of breast maturation and sport activity on fatness. The subjects were athlete (N=1428) and non-athlete (N=1030) girls. They were grouped by the stages of breast development. Fat accumulation was followed up until four years after menarche. Regional fat distribution was examined on the basis of skinfolds taken at triceps, scapula, abdomen and thigh. Progressing with breast development, body fat percent increased in both groups, though in non-athletes a decrease was found in stage B4. During sexual maturation the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased on the extremities and increased on the trunk. Non-athletes stored more fat on their upper trunk, while athletes did it on their lower trunk. After menarche the differences between athlete and non-athlete girls were preserved. In conclusion it may be stated that during sexual maturation the regional apposition trend of body fat was similar for athletes and non-athletes. The differences emerged in the relative distributions. Athlete girls accumulated proportionally more fat on their lower body, representing better the female-type distribution of body fat than non-athlete girls.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

ACTN-3 and ACE genotypes in elite male Italian athletes
Myosotis Massidda, Laura Corrias, Marco Scorcu , Giuseppe Vona, Maria Carla Calò

The ACE I/D and the ACTN-3 R577X polymorphisms are the most studied genes associated with elite athlete status, even if this association has been often conflicting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the ACE and the ACTN3 genotypes and elite performance in Italian male athletes. The ACTN-3 R577X and the ACE I/D genotype distributions of 59 elite male Italian athletes practicing gymnastics (G; n = 17), 100 m-400 m running (R; n = 12), and playing soccer (S; n= 30) were compared with controls from Italian (C; n = 31) populations. For ACE distribution, athletes did not differ from controls (G, χ2 = 0.37, df = 2, p = 0.82; R, χ2 = 1.90, df = 2, p = 0.45; S, χ2 = 1.48, df = 2, p = 0.47) and the DD genotype was at very high frequency in all groups (G = 53%, R= 50%, S = 60%, C = 45%). For ACTN-3 distribution, elite gymnasts showed a significant difference from controls (χ2 = 6.57, df = 2, p = 0.03), showing an absence of XX genotype. Soccer players and runners did not differ from controls in ACTN-3 genotype distribution (R, χ2 =0.43, df = 2, p = 0.80; S, χ2 = 1.25, df = 2, p = 0.53). Even if the ACE DD genotype is often positively associated with elite sprint/power athlete status, its high frequency in Italian populations eliminates the possibility of its exclusive association in Italian athletes. The results of ACTN3 genotypes suggest that RR genotype of ACTN-3 gene is a determinant of elite gymnasts status but it is not the key factor for achieving a top-level performance in soccer or track events.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

Frequency and chronological distribution of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age population from Żerniki Górne (Poland) – preliminary report
Jacek Tomczyk, Maria Tomczyk-Gruca, Marta Zalewska

Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is treated as a nonspecific indicator of stress, but even so, many authors consider it the most reliable tool stress in anthropological research. Its analysis allows the reconstruction of health related to the socio-economic status of the group. This study documents and interprets patterns of LEH in Żerniki Górne (Poland), a settlement which was functional in the Late Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age. We examined two successive cultures: the Corded Ware Culture (CWC; 3200–2300BC) and the Trzciniec Culture (TC; 1500–1300BC). In total, there were 1486 permanent teeth (124 adult individuals). The frequency of LEH in the examined cultures shows a small rising trend. In these series from Żernik Górne, males showed a higher occurrence of LEH (16.5%) than females (13.4%). The earliest LEH appeared at similar ages at about 2.0/2.2 years and the last LEH occurred at about 4.2 years of age in both cultures. However, it is worth noting that periods associated with physiological stress were more common but not very long (four months on average) in the CWC. Longer stress periods (nine months on average) were associated with the TC.

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

Forensic Casework in Contemporary Perspective
Douglas H. Ubelaker

Anthropol Rev 2012 © 2012 Polish Anthropological Society

VOLUME 74, 2011

W chwili obecnej brak artykułów

VOLUME 73, 2010

W chwili obecnej brak artykułów

VOLUME 72, 2009

W chwili obecnej brak artykułów

VOLUME 71, 2008

W chwili obecnej brak artykułów

VOLUME 70, 2007


Assessment of the BMI, WHR and W/Ht in pre- and postmenopausal women
Magdalena Skrzypczak, Anita Szwed, Romana Pawlińska-Chmara, Violetta Skrzypulec,

Can economic stress affect secondary sex ratio in Poland?
Elżbieta Żądzińska, Iwona Rosset, Czesław Domański, Bogusław Pawłowski, Artur Mikulec,

Physical growth of preterm girls with visual impairment
Wioleta Umławska,

The alchemy of human variation: Race, ethnicity and Manoiloff’s blood reaction
Nicollete P. Naidoo, Goran Štrkalj, Thomas J.M. Daly,

Facial attractiveness: General patterns of facial preferences
Krzysztof Kościński,

VOLUME 69, 2006


Aboriginal stature in South Australia: A 10,000-year history
Tim Owen, Maciej Henneberg, F. Donald Pate,

Correlates of biological age in postmenopausal life
Maria Kaczmarek, Edyta Lasik,

Somatic development of children with visual impairment
Wioleta Umławska,

Is there a relationship between body build and the serum level of cholesterol and triglycerides in women?
Maria Chrzanowska, Jan Sobiecki, Małgorzata Kowal, Tomasz Kościuk, Stanisław Matusik,

Allele protecting against HIV (CCR5-Δ32) identified in early medieval specimens from Central Poland. Preliminary results
Henryk W. Witas, Przemysław Zawicki,

VOLUME 68, 2005


Genetics of biological aging in Mennonites of Midwestern United States
Michael H. Crawford,

Differentiation of gonadotropin and sex hormone levels in 50, 60 and 70-year old men. An attempt to indicate a normal range
Maria Kaczmarek, Magdalena Skrzypczak, Katarzyna Łącka,

The diet and social paleostratigraphy of Neolithic agricultural population of the Lengyel culture from Osłonki (Poland)
Krzysztof Szostek, Henryk Głąb,Wiesław Lorkiewicz, Ryszard Grygiel, Peter Bogucki,

What is the risk for overweight children of bring overweight at age 18 years? The Wrocław Growth Study
Sławomir Kozieł,

Assessment of the biological condition and nutritional status of adult patients with cystic fibrosis
Magdalena Kosińska, Anita Szwed, Joachim Cieślik, Joanna Goździk, Karol Karbowy,

The effect of maceration and hydration on cranial dimensions: A study of Oryctolagus cuniculus
Eleanor Adams, Carl N. Stephan,

Position of minimum shaft breadth in modern human femora
Qian Wang, Li Sun, Phillip V. Tobias,

Book Reviews

VOLUME 67, 2004


Secular trends in growth, maturation and physical performance: A review
Robert M. Malina,

Methods to estimate sexual dimorphism from unsexed samples: A test with computer-generated samples
Krzysztof Kościński, Sergiusz Pietraszewski,

The midlife well-being, gender and marital status
Maria Kaczmarek,

Month of birth and body height differences in Polish urban schoolchildren from Katowice
Elżbieta Alicja Puch, Agnieszka Kozłowska-Rajewicz,

Catch-up growth among low birth weight infants: Estimation of the time of occurrence of compensatory events
Magdalena Kosińska, Bogumiła Stoińska, Janusz Gadzinowski,

Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution: A review
Henryk W. Witas, Przemysław Zawicki,

More on the early taxonomy of Australopithecus
Goran Štrkalj,

VOLUME 66, 2003


The decline of race in American physical anthropology
Leonard Lieberman, Rodney C. Kirk, Michael Corcoran,

Race: Tradition and convenience, or taxonomic reality? More on the race concept in Polish anthropology
Katarzyna A. Kaszycka, Jan Strzałko,

Fluctuating asymmetry of some head structures and its possible causes
Elżbieta Żądzińska,

Biological fitness at middle-age is reduced in both very lean and obese males
Anna Lipowicz,

Associations between blood pressure and economic modernization among adults on Rorotonga, the Cook Island
Stanley J. Ulijaszek, Sławomir Kozieł,

Physical activity and normal body mass of women aged 45-55
Maria Nowak, Ewa Szczepanowska,

Morphological classification of patiens with sleep obstructive disturbances
Blanka Mrowicka, Magdalena Kosińska, Szczepan Cofta,

VOLUME 65, 2002


Sexual dimorphism in the robusticity of long bones of infants and young children
Anna Coussens, Tim Anson, Rachel M. Norris, Maciej Henneberg,

Effect of diurnal variation on body composition under consideration of selected chronobiological marker systems
Manuela Dittmar, Christoph Raschka, Horst J. Koch,

Adolescent growth and its relation to menarche, dental and somatic maturation
Maria Kaczmarek,

The effects of menstrual and menopausal factors on bone mineral content in healthy Polish women
Alicja Szklarska, Ewa Jankowska, Monika Łopuszańska,

Recent trends in stature of 14-year-old boys from Wrocław, Poland
Halina Kołodziej, Sławomir Kozieł,

Anthropometric craniofacial pattern profiles in microcephaly
Ghada M.H. Abdel-Salam, Gyula Gyenis, Andrew E. Czeizel,

Comparison of various decalcificators in preparation of DNA from human rib bones
Magdalena Żołędziewska, Stanisław Gronkiewicz, Tadeusz Dobosz,

Paradigms of anthropology as causes of taxonomic controversies
Jacek Tomczyk,

VOLUME 64, 2001


75 years of Przegląd Antropologiczny
Jan D. Strzałko,

An old species and a new frontier: Some thoughts on the taxonomy of Homo erectus
Qian Wang, Phillip V. Tobias,

Assigned Resampling Method: A new method to estimate size sexual dimorphism in samples of unknown sex
Sang-Hee Lee,

Molecular anthropology: Touching the past through ancient DNA retrieval. Methodological aspects
Henryk W. Witas,

Age at menopause and reproductive determinants in Polish women
Maria Kaczmarek, Anita Szwed,

Social-class differences in Poland pronounced in stature, but absent in gene frequencies
Lidia Gronkiewicz,

Marital status and biological condition of Polish males
Anna Lipowicz,

The aesthetics of the eyes and mouth position in a threepoint face schema
Waldemar Frąckiewicz,

Tactile sensitivity of blind and visually impaired children and adolescents. The significance of swimming exercises
Elżbieta Rostkowska, Elżbieta Maśnik,

A report on physical performance in female patients diseased for idiopathic scoliosis
Maria Laurentowska, Ewa Szczepanowska, Maciej Głowacki, Tadeusz Rychlewski,

VOLUME 63, 2000


The many species of humanity
Milford H. Wolpoff, Rachel Caspari,

Eightieth year of Peking man: Current status of Peking Man and the Zhoukoudian site
Qian Wang, Li Sun,

Becoming a hominid: Notes on the early taxonomy of Australopithecus
Goran Štrkalj,

The biological meaning of preferences on the human mate market
Bogusław Pawłowski,

An attempt to evaluate some personality characteristics of Wrocław high school graduates of different pubescence age
Ewa Kolasa, Wioleta Umławska, Ewa Olszewska,

Age of menarche in girls with sight organ diseases
Wioleta Umławska,

The comparison between two age estimation methods based on human teeth
Elżbieta Żądzińska, Andrea G. Drusini, Nicola Carrara,

Fertility, offspring survival, and adaptive value as related to morphological traits – methodological and interpretation problems
Krzysztof Kościński,

Secular changes of height and body mass of children and youth in the Bydgoszcz region
Grzegorz Nowicki,

A report on the occurrence of accessory triradii in the subdigital area, and carpal triradii on the palm in Polish and Czech populations
Adam Gąsiorowski, Václav Hajn,

VOLUME 62, 1999


Body height and mass of girls from rural communities in Krosno region as affected by political and economical changes in Poland in the period 1977-1997
Teresa Łaska-Mierzejewska,

Is maternal smoking harmful to the physical growth of offspring at early childhood?
Maria Kaczmarek, Dorota Młyńska,


Correlations between selected fatness indices and total body fat estimated by means of the impedance method
Małgorzata Socha,

Fatness of children and adolescents from various socio-economic groups between 1978 and 1988
Anna Lipowicz,

Urbanization factor as a modifier of phenotypic development
Magdalena Kosińska, Maria D.Kaliszewska-Drozdowska,